The tidelike movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the alveoli are continuously changed and refreshed. AKA ventilation or breathing
The gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/carbon dioxide unloading
Transport of respiratory gases
The transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body accomplished by the cardiovascular system, using blood as the transport vehicle
Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells (Oxygen unloading and carbon dioxide loading)
Major role of respiratory system
To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide.
Divided by the nasal septum. Is a large air filled space containing the inferior, superior, ad middle nasal conchae
Divides the nasal cavity
Located in the superior nasal mucosa
The mouth, separated from the nasal passages by the hard palate and soft palate
Connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly. 3 parts: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
Hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box
2 phases of Pulmonary ventilation
Inspiration and expiration
When air is taken into the lungs
When air passes out of the lungs
What causes the size of the thoracic cavity to increase?
The inspiratory muscles (external intercostals and diaphragm) contract during inspiration.
Tidal volume (TV)
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions (500mL)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRC)
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation (3100mL)
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation (1200mL)
Vital capacity (VC)
Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration (4800mL)
What occurs at the end of a normal inspiration?
Chest expanded, diaphragm depressed
What occurs at the end of a normal expiration?
Chest depressed, diaphragm elevated
What are the five major processes of digestion?
Ingestion, movement of food, mechanical and enzymatic digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of indigestible waste
GI tract, approximately 9 meters long in a cadaver but shorter in living person due to muscle tone. Consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines
Accessory digestive organs
Teeth, salivary glands, bladder, liver, and pancreas
What is the significance of the mesentery?
The mesentery is a double layer of peritoneum that suspends the small intestine from the posterior abdominal wall. It contains veins and arteries that supply the small intestine.
What is the significance of the folding in the digestive system?
Folding in the digestive system, which includes villi and crypts, is to increase the surface area for digestion and absorption.
What is the digestive function of the liver?
To produce bile, which emulsifies fat, breaking up large fat particles into smaller ones, which creates a larger surface area for more efficient lipase activity. Without bile, very little fat digestion or absorption occurs.
Why are lobules structural and functional units of the liver?
Each lobule is a hexagonal structure consisting of cordlike arrays of hepatocytes, which radiate outward from a central vein running upward in the longitudinal axis of the lobule.
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
To produce the hormones insulin and glucagon
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
Secretion of many hydrolytic enzymes into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. The hydrolytic enzymes neutralize the acidic chyme entering the duodenum from the stomach, enabling the pancreatic and intestinal enzymes to operate at their optimal pH, which is slightly alkaline