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Flashcards in Natural law Deck (45)
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1

Define 'deontlogical'

From the latin meaning 'duty' ethics founded on intrinsic right or wrong of actions

2

Define 'telos'

The end or purpose of something

3

Define 'natural law'

A deontological theory based on behaviour that accords with given laws or moral rules (e.g. given by God) that exist independently of human societies and systems

4

Define 'synderesis'

To follow the good and avoid evil which is the rule that all precepts have to follow

5

Define 'secondary precepts'

The laws which follow the primary precepts

6

Define 'primary precepts'

The most important rules in life; to protect life, to reproduce, to live in the community and teach the young to believe in God

7

Define 'practical reason'

The tool which makes moral decisions

8

Define 'eudaimonia'

living well as an ultimate end in life which all other actions should lead towards

9

What are the four tiers of law?

Aquinas' approach to ethics based on a universal order that all moral laws are based on.
Eternal, Divine, Natural and Human law

10

What are real and apparent goods?

Humans do bad things because they are mistaken by apparent goods

11

What is the doctrine of double effect?

An action with two effects or consequences

12

What are real and apparent goods?

Humans do bad things because they are mistaken by apparent goods

13

What is the doctrine of double effect?

An action with two effects or consequences

14

What is cultural relativism?

We should live by the what social norms suggest

15

What is subjectivism?

We should live by personal belief

16

What do utilitarians live by?

Actions or rules which maximise pleasure for all

17

What do absolutists believe you should live by?

Fixed moral laws such as transcendental forms or ideas of Plato

18

Give a quote from Aquinas

"Now a certain order is to be found in those things that are apprehended universally"

19

Describe Samuel von Pufendorf's theory of natural law

'Of the Law of Nature and Nations' (1729) - by ourselves we are vulnerable but we live in communities and societies to survive

20

Where does the idea of natural law come from?

The Greek stoics believed human beings have a divine spark enabling them to discover eternal laws necessary for human happiness. The stoics considered themselves citizens of universal law

21

Describe the beliefs of Aristotle

Natural law is given, he thought that the purpose of human beings was to live a life of reason

22

Give a quote from Aristotle

"Reason is the true self of every man since it is the supreme and better part"

23

What does Aristotle believe about telos?

Every agent (being capable of choosing how to act) acts for an end such as acquiring happiness or eudaimonia, something is good if it fulfils its end

24

What does Aquinas believe are moral acts?

Free acts which come from a freely acting rational person, we act towards specific ends but achieving those ends is not fully satisfying because we are only fully satisfied when we achieve the ultimate end which is universal good

25

What did Aquinas believe is universal good?

Cannot be found in this world but only in the supreme and infinite God which only rational creatures can perceive

26

Give a quote from Aquinas about universal good

"Ultimate and perfect beatitude can consist only in the vision of the divine essence which is the very essence of goodness"

27

Why does Aquinas believe divine help is needed?

Divine help is needed to direct motivation for actions because Aquinas is more concerned with intention than action because good action may be for selfish intention making the action bad but you can also not do bad action for good reason as emotion may confuse moral decision making

28

Describe the eternal law

- Absolute and eternal law
- Part of the mind of God his unchanging reason
- Eternal law remains the same despite culture or political situation
- God plants eternal law in every rational soul

29

Describe the divine law

- Through the divine law God sends information about eternal law
- Commands and teachings of divine revelation
- Sacred scripture revealed by God is teaching human beings how to live

30

Describe natural law

- Allows humans to perceive eternal law through human reason
- Separates humans from animals and makes eternal law accessible to all of humanity
- Act-based and deontological