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Flashcards in Natural law Deck (45)
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Define 'deontlogical'

From the latin meaning 'duty' ethics founded on intrinsic right or wrong of actions


Define 'telos'

The end or purpose of something


Define 'natural law'

A deontological theory based on behaviour that accords with given laws or moral rules (e.g. given by God) that exist independently of human societies and systems


Define 'synderesis'

To follow the good and avoid evil which is the rule that all precepts have to follow


Define 'secondary precepts'

The laws which follow the primary precepts


Define 'primary precepts'

The most important rules in life; to protect life, to reproduce, to live in the community and teach the young to believe in God


Define 'practical reason'

The tool which makes moral decisions


Define 'eudaimonia'

living well as an ultimate end in life which all other actions should lead towards


What are the four tiers of law?

Aquinas' approach to ethics based on a universal order that all moral laws are based on.
Eternal, Divine, Natural and Human law


What are real and apparent goods?

Humans do bad things because they are mistaken by apparent goods


What is the doctrine of double effect?

An action with two effects or consequences


What are real and apparent goods?

Humans do bad things because they are mistaken by apparent goods


What is the doctrine of double effect?

An action with two effects or consequences


What is cultural relativism?

We should live by the what social norms suggest


What is subjectivism?

We should live by personal belief


What do utilitarians live by?

Actions or rules which maximise pleasure for all


What do absolutists believe you should live by?

Fixed moral laws such as transcendental forms or ideas of Plato


Give a quote from Aquinas

"Now a certain order is to be found in those things that are apprehended universally"


Describe Samuel von Pufendorf's theory of natural law

'Of the Law of Nature and Nations' (1729) - by ourselves we are vulnerable but we live in communities and societies to survive


Where does the idea of natural law come from?

The Greek stoics believed human beings have a divine spark enabling them to discover eternal laws necessary for human happiness. The stoics considered themselves citizens of universal law


Describe the beliefs of Aristotle

Natural law is given, he thought that the purpose of human beings was to live a life of reason


Give a quote from Aristotle

"Reason is the true self of every man since it is the supreme and better part"


What does Aristotle believe about telos?

Every agent (being capable of choosing how to act) acts for an end such as acquiring happiness or eudaimonia, something is good if it fulfils its end


What does Aquinas believe are moral acts?

Free acts which come from a freely acting rational person, we act towards specific ends but achieving those ends is not fully satisfying because we are only fully satisfied when we achieve the ultimate end which is universal good


What did Aquinas believe is universal good?

Cannot be found in this world but only in the supreme and infinite God which only rational creatures can perceive


Give a quote from Aquinas about universal good

"Ultimate and perfect beatitude can consist only in the vision of the divine essence which is the very essence of goodness"


Why does Aquinas believe divine help is needed?

Divine help is needed to direct motivation for actions because Aquinas is more concerned with intention than action because good action may be for selfish intention making the action bad but you can also not do bad action for good reason as emotion may confuse moral decision making


Describe the eternal law

- Absolute and eternal law
- Part of the mind of God his unchanging reason
- Eternal law remains the same despite culture or political situation
- God plants eternal law in every rational soul


Describe the divine law

- Through the divine law God sends information about eternal law
- Commands and teachings of divine revelation
- Sacred scripture revealed by God is teaching human beings how to live


Describe natural law

- Allows humans to perceive eternal law through human reason
- Separates humans from animals and makes eternal law accessible to all of humanity
- Act-based and deontological