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Flashcards in Muskulo Skeletal System Deck (55)
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What initiates the skeletal muscle contraction?

electrical signal from the somatic nervous system, that arrives to the muscle at the neuromuscular junction


What does the skeletal muscular contraction need to happen?

calcium and energy


How is a smooth muscle contraction controlled?

Through a combination of the autonomous nervous system and the endocrine nervous system


What does smooth muscle respond to?

electrical impulses and hormones that are released to by specialised organs or even physical factors such as stretching , changes in ph and temp


What is an example of hormone stimulation?

oxytocin triggers uterine contractions


what is an example of a physical factor?

when the pupil reacts to light


What is peristalsis?

the wave like motion that smooth muscle can move in


What is essential for maintaining steady pressures in blood vessels?

the contraction of of the smooth muscle starts slower and lasts much longer than skeletal muscle. It is almost like smooth muscle is always in a continued partial contraction


Smooth muscle is generally found in 2 layers;

Longitudinal; causes organ dilation and shortening and it is often the outer layer of the organ

Circular; causes organ constriction and elongation, and it is often the inner layer


What explains the fact that the uterus can enlarge and the vagina can dilate?

the longitudinal and circular layers give the smooth muscle layer have greater flexibility, elasticity and resistance than the skeletal muscles


what is the deltoid muscle?

Located at the top of the arm, this is a muscle you may use to administer intramuscular injections


What is the gluteus muscle?

These are a groups of three muscles which make up the buttocks, inserted from the ilium and sacrum to the femur.


What are the abdominal rectus?

these are the abdominal muscles that connect the ribs with the pubis and will separate in pregnancy with the growth of the uterus


flexion vs extension

refers to a movement that decreases/ increases the angle between two body parts


abduction vs adduction

refers to a movement towards or away from the midline of the body



it is a circular motion, where the limb forms a cone of movement around the joint



refers to the movement of the limbs around their long axis


supination vs pronation

refers to the movement where the part of the body is turned to the anterior part (supine) or the posterior part (prone) of the body


inversion vs eversion

refers to movements which occur at the ankle joint referring to the rotation of the foot around its long axis


How are most of the changes in pregnancy related?

They are related to the physical changes in body weight distribution that happens in a short period of time


How are the adaptations to pregnancy mediated?

through hormones such as relaxin and progesterone

relaxin relaxes the ligaments in the body which progesterone reduces the contraction of the smooth muscles


What is symphysis pubic diastasis (SPD)?

the pubic bones can separate causes severe discomfort


What cause leg cramps in the second half of pregnancy?

They are common and can be related to mineral metabolism and increases neuromuscular irritability


What can cause swelling in the lower limbs?

water retention leads to soft tissue oedema (swelling) in the lower limbs. This along with the musculoskeletal changes may cause nerve entrapment, often in the form if sciatica or tunnel carpal syndrome.


Why are pregnant women at risk of falling?

The changes in the posture control and body balance

they have the same risk as someone over 65