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Flashcards in MUSIC Deck (29)
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1

History of music

Earliest treatise could be considered to be SAMVEDA which had shlokas and hyms
Natyashastra of Bharatmuni has 6 chapter on musc
Brihaddesi of Matanga Discussed raga at great lengths , distinguished beteeen Marga Sangeet and Desi Sangeet i.e Classical and Folk

2

History of music

Samudragupta is shown playing veena
Post Gupta oeriod Harsha was an accomolished singer

3

History of music- Mughal

Indian music under islamic influence was developed under sufis
Amir Khusro was one of the bigfest influences
Amir khusro invented bmany instruments and singing styles  like khadi hindi boli and Qawallis. His works Laila Majnu ,Ayina I Sikandari

4

Amir Khusro
Laila majnu

Aina i sikandari

5

History of Music - North India

Sarangdeva composed RatnaKara considered Fountainhead os modern Hindustani music ,it distinguished beyween hindustani and carnatic music for first time

6

History of Music-Bhakti

Bhakti was based on musicals
Jayadeva's geeta govinda in this respect had a huge influence on bhakti
During these times developed bhajans and kirtans ,popular were in Bengal for krishna and Radha

7

History of Music - Bhakti

Kirtans were popularised by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Abhhang form from Maharashtra were patronised by Eknath, Jnaeshwara and Tukaram
Shabd style by sikhs and Ashtachapa named after 8 saints was founded by vallabhacharya

8

History of music -Mughal

Tansen and Baijubawras were singers during Akbars time

9

Hindustani music History

Mahor by Vishnu Digamvar and Vishnu Narayan
Major contributions by Vishnu Digambar who started Gandharv Mahavidyalaya and Raghupati taghav raja ram is to his credit
Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande  Estabilished Marris College and wrote treatise on classical music and reclassified ragas into raga male, ragini female , and putra children and also developed Thaat System

10

Modern history of music

Majorly by rabindranath tagore and todays time many institutions like sangeet natak academy are teaching

11

Music Components

Swar ,Raga, Tala
Swar are Sargams ,Raga are mood and flabor, Tala is rhythm

12

Hindustani Music or North Indian

Based Strictly on Time theory of Ragad ,there are 6 Ragas based on mood and emotions
Starts with Alap
Styles are Dhrupad ,Dhamar, Thumri,Khayal- Dhrupad and Khayal most popular

13

Carnatic Music

It has Parent Ragas and Derivative Ragas i.e Janak and Janya
starts with Alapna

14

Dhrupad

Hindustani Classical Music dhrupad means fixed words - Performed with Tanpura and Pakhwaja
Serious and sober , spiritual and devotional ,induce spirituality,Form of worship
Two parts are alap and bandish ,Alap is sanskrit syllables like pa ,dha , ni , sa and Bandish is short poem

15

Dhrupad

Baiju bawara , haridas ,tansen developed Dhrupad - in mughal times interest in khayal started
Dhrupad Gharans are Dagar gharana and Darbhanga Gharana

16

Khayal Music

It means imagination, attributed to amir khusro, it is delicate and romantic ,more freedom of structure
It has taans and Boltaans
It has two types slow and fast i.e Vilambit and Drut style

17

Khayal

Gwalior gharana , Kinara Gharana

18

Dhrupad vs Khayal

Old vs young, spiritual vs romantic , short bandish vs long bandish, sanskrit alap vs may or may not sanskrti akap
Pakhwaaj vs Tabla and harmonium
Alap and Bandhish vs Alap ,bada khayal, chota khayal ,meaning tough to recognise vs easy

19

Thumri

Bhakti devotion, romantic ,less rules, much freer than khayal also. Eg Poorab and Punjabi styles eg. Girija Devi
Benaras gharana,lucknow gharana ,patiala gharana

20

Dhamar

Play of Lord Krishna ,holi, braj, celebration of festivals

21

Tarana and Tappa And Dadra

Tarana are mere tere ,dere ,teem, Nadir etc  ,no meang

22

Tappa punjab

Dadra is faster than thumri ,mostly in urdu or brajbhasha

23

Carnaric Music

Purundara Dasa - Father of Carnatic Music
Venkat Mukhi Swami - theoretical basis and melakarta system
Musicians are Tyagraja ,Muthuswami,Syama Sastri - Trinity of Carnatic Music

24

Elements od Carnatic

Shruti, Swar, Raga ,Tala
Emphasis on vocal music a lot , gayaki style
Types Kirti, Varnam ,Padam ,Tillana

25

Himdustani vs Carnatic

Styles Thaat vs Melas, 6 ragas vs 72 melakarts ragas, more instrument vs less, instrumtal more vocal, influenced by mughal persian vs nit , Gharanas vs No gharanas
More freedom vs less freedokn, tablan,sarangi,santoor sitar vs flute , violin, veena , mandolin

26

Tantu

Stringed eg veena , sitar ,Sarod , Sarangi

27

Susir

Wind based Flute etc

28

Avanada

beater instruments

29

Ghana

Sound making ,gongs , cymbals,majira etc