Hypercalcemia associated with sarcoidosis occurs because of the increased conversion of what substance into its active form in epithelioid macrophages?
What type of arthritis is associated with sarcoidosis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (remember: GRAIN (Gammaglobulinemia, Rheumatoid arthritis, ACE increase, Interstitial fibrosis, Noncaseating granulomas)
What is the treatment for sarcoidosis?
Polymyositis involves progressive _____ (proximal/distal) muscle weakness.
Which part of the immune system causes damage in polymyositis?
CD8+ T-cell-induced injury to myofibers
Polymyositis most often involves what body part?
Dermatomyositis is similar to polymyositis but also involves what skin symptom?
Rash (heliotrope, malar and shawl and face)
Which lab results are abnormal in polymyositis/dermatomyositis?
Elevated creatine kinase, elevated aldolase, positive antinuclear antibody, and anti-Jo-1
What is the diagnostic procedure for dermatomyositis and polymyositis?
What is the treatment for polymyositis and dermatomyositis?
Steroids are used to treat both disorders
Gottrons papules are symptoms of what disease?
While the symptoms of myasthenia gravis _____ (improve/worsen) with muscle use, symptoms of Lambert-Eaton syndrome _____ (improve/worsen) with muscle use.
Myasthenia gravis is caused by autoantibodies to which receptor?
Name two ophthalmic manifestations of myasthenia gravis.
Ptosis and diplopia
Myasthenia gravis is associated with which type of tumor?
Individuals with myasthenia gravis complain of generalized weakness that is worse in the _____ (morning/evening).
In myasthenia gravis, weakness tends to be worse toward the end of the day
Lambert-Eaton syndrome is caused by autoantibodies to which types of ionic channels, leading to a decrease in acetylcholine release?
Lambert-Eaton syndrome leads to _____ (proximal/distal) muscle weakness.
Which malignancy is most closely associated with Lambert-Eaton syndrome?
Small-cell lung cancer
True or False? Both myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton syndrome improve with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor use.
False; although myasthenia gravis symptoms reverse with the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, there is no reversal in Lambert-Eaton syndrome with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors alone such as edrophonium
While myasthenia gravis involves autoantibodies against the _____ (presynaptic/postsynaptic) acetylcholine receptors, Lambert-Eaton syndrome involves autoantibodies against the _____ (presynaptic/postsynaptic) calcium channels.
In contrast to myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome spares what muscle group?
What five characteristics are associated with mixed connective tissues diseases?
Raynauds phenomenon, Fatigue, Arthralgias, Myalgias, and Esophageal hypomotility (remember: Raynauds FAME)
Patients with mixed connective tissue disease are positive for _____ autoantibodies.
What is the treatment for mixed connective tissue disease?
What condition involves excessive fibrosis and collagen deposition throughout the body but most commonly under the skin?
Does scleroderma affect more men or women?
Although scleroderma most commonly affects the skin, what four other organ systems can it affect?
Cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and renal
Describe the progression of diffuse scleroderma.
Widespread skin involvement, rapid progression, and early visceral involvement
What are the two types of scleroderma?
Diffuse scleroderma and CREST syndrome