Flashcards in Module 9 : Organisms Deck (73)
Why do radiation treatments for cancer negatively affect healthy cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?
- GI tract cells are rapidly dividing cells and are not able to repair damage done by radiation.
- Since the cells of the GI tract are naturally rapidly dividing at all times, radiation can negatively affect these cells by not allowing sufficient time for cell repair; a side effect from this cancer treatment is diarrhea in the patient undergoing the radiation treatment.
What reaction absorbs energy from the environment?
- Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction.
Cells, tissues, _______, and organ systems work together to perform bodily functions.
- Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems work together to perform bodily functions. Organ systems in the human body include the cardiovascular system, the immune system, the nervous system, and the digestive system.
The addition of what might help to increase the rate of a given chemical reaction?
- The addition of sunlight or heat would help to increase the rate of a given chemical reaction, as higher temperatures tend to increase reaction rates. The higher the temperature of the material, the faster its molecules are moving, and the more forceful the collisions between them become.
What is a characteristic of BOTH photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
- ATP is produced at some point in both processes.
- Both cellular respiration and photosynthesis produce ATP to carry out the respective processes.
What might be contained in a prokaryotic cell?
- Prokaryotic cells may contain pili.
What process occurs only in organisms that reproduce sexually?
- Meiosis produces sex cells, so it occurs only in organisms that use sexual reproduction.
What is not associated with mitosis?
- Crossing Over
- Crossing over occurs during meiosis, not mitosis, and is a key contributor to genetic diversity.
What two organ systems are primarily responsible for support and movement?
- muscular system and skeletal system
- The skeletal system (the bones, joints, and ligaments) helps to support the body, and the muscular system (muscles and tendons) allows the body to move.
What statement best describes Mendel's law of independent assortment?
- The inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of another trait.
- The law of independent assortment states that traits are inherited independently of one another. For example, inheriting a certain flower color is independent of inheriting a certain flower shape.
Why can radiation be an effective treatment of cancer cells?
- Cancer cells have less time to repair damage caused by radiation.
- Cancer cells are frequently dividing cells (literally mitosis gone awry) and so the doses of radiation damage the cancer cells and their DNA and leave these frequently dividing cells little time for repair.
What statement correctly compares photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
- Photosynthesis is endothermic, and cellular respiration is exothermic.
- Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction because it absorbs sunlight and converts it to stored chemical energy. The products of photosynthesis contain more stored chemical energy than the reactants contain. Cellular respiration is exothermic because it releases energy. The products of cellular respiration contain less stored chemical energy than the reactants do.