Module 8 : Ecosystems and Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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(Evolution : Part 1)
Define the following terms associated with natural selection :
(A) variation
(B) heritable traits
(C) fitness

(A) variation :
- traits vary from individual to individual
- nature needs "choices"
(B) heritable traits :
- trait that can be passed on genetically from parent to offspring
(C) fitness :
- number of offspring an organism leaves over its lifetime compared to other individuals in the population
- "choices" of trait result in changing survival odds

1

(Evolution : Part 1)
What is natural selection?

- observed changes in a population are a response to specific environmental pressures unique to each environment.
- variation, heritability, and fitness are the components
- different environments = different adaptations

2

(Evolution : Part 1)
Describe an example of a population that changes over time due to natural selection. How do variation, heritable traits, fitness, and natural selection allow change in the population to occur?

- White rabbits have adapted to their environment
- the white helps them to blend into their surroundings to help avoid predation

3

(Evolution : Part 1)
Why are adaptations an important component of a species' survival?

- because they are important for survival
- if the species does not adapt to it's environment it lives in, it will not survive

4

(Evolution : Part 1)
Describe adaptations of animals in extreme environments, such as a polar bear (in a cold, arctic environment) or a desert rabbit (in a hot, humid environment)

- polar bear : (cold, arctic environment) larger, tend to have smaller surface area-to-volume increases rapidly due to growing so quickly (Bergmann's Rule), short appendages (Allen's Rule) and small ears to conserve heat, although polar bears seem white, they are transparent, which allows sun to transmit to skin below, they have insulating layers that conduct heat slowly and slow down heat loss
- desert rabbit : (hot-dry-desert environment) smaller, long legs, large ears that increase the surface area available for heat dissipation, extensive blood vessels that carry heat from core of body to skin where convection cool them off, pale in color

5

(Evolution : Part 1)
Theory of Evolution

- The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.
- Charles Darwin is widely known for his theories on Natural Selection and The Theory of Evolution

6

(Evolution : Part 2)
Describe how variation, heritability, fitness, and natural selection contributed to the evolution of the following populations :
(A) peppered moths
(B) antibiotic resistant bacteria
(C) Darwin's finches

(A) peppered moths :
- natural selection : blended in with white bark; smog created from factories changed color of bark on trees (environmental change)
- variation : alternative moth colors
- heritability : color is inherited
- fitness : alternate coloration, increased survival
(B) antibiotic resistant bacteria :
- antibiotic kills sensitive bacteria, sensitive population dies off, antibiotics are often over prescribed and/or not taken correctly and/or not disposed of properly, bacteria gains resistance "super bug"
- natural selection : environmental poison
- variation : resistance to poison
- hereditarily : resistance is inherited
- fitness : resistant bacteria, increased survival
(C) Darwin's finches :
- his observation showed a variation in the size and shape of their beaks; each type of finch's beak was suited to and used for a different diet; this supported his idea that all types of finches started as "one" and then evolved into the different types based on the food available
- natural selection : altered food
- variation : potential beak shapes
- heritability : beak shape inherited
- fitness : food-specific beak, increased survival

7

(Evolution : Part 2)
Describe how the following are examples of evidence that support the theory of evolution :
(A) anatomical homologous
(B) vestigial organs
(C) vertebrate embryo development
(D) fossil record
(E) biogeography
(F) common ancestors
(G) DNA evidence

(A) anatomical homologies :
- morphological or physiological similarities between different species of plants or animals
- source of most traditional evidence for evolution
- it continues to provide many examples of deep relationships between species which are best or only explained through evolutionary theory when the similarities simply don't make sense from a functional perspective
- recurring structures in nature (hands, paws) (bone structures anatomy is the same, slightly different shape or orientation)
(B) vestigial organs :
- organ that serves no useful function in an organism
- "hidden" anatomical homologies (whale and snake no legs or arms Bone structure shows pelvis and femur)
(C) vertebrate embryo development :
- vertebrate at any stage of development prior to birth or hatching
- an animal in the early stages of growth
- nature doesn't mess with a good thing (most animals look similar when in beginning stages of an embryo)
(D) fossil record :
- information about past life, including the structure of organisms, what they ate, what ate them, in what environment they lived, and the order in which they lived
- evidence from the past (place in time, deeper is older, can create a timeline of animals based on structures found in fossils, where they are found is important you can track migration patterns and species splitting up)
(E) biogeography :
- geographic distribution of species
- Darwin's finches on the Galápagos Islands, different finches on different islands due to adaptation
(F) common ancestors :
- group of organisms said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor
- in modern biology, it is generally accepted that all living organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool
(G) DNA evidence :
- can solve evolutionary puzzles, such as how to classify organisms that look similar to one species but share peculiar behaviors with one another
- paternity testing
- inter species testing, similarities in DNA
- genetic relation timeline can be made over time, genetic similarity increases

8

(Classification Part 1 : Introduction)
How are organisms classified in Linnaean classification?

- system of classification that emphasized the shared physical similarities of organisms

9

(Classification Part 1 : Introduction)
List, in order, the levels included in Linnaean classification.

- domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
- easy way to remember :
Do (domain) Keep (kingdom) Pots (phylum) Clean (class) Or (order) Family (family) Gets (genus) Sick (species)

10

(Classification Part 1 : Introduction)
Which if the following levels in Linnaean classification would be the most inclusive?
(A) Domain
(B) Kingdom
(C) Family
(D) Species

ANSWER
(A) domain

11

(Classification Part 1 : Introduction)
Which of the following shows the levels of Linnaean classification in order from most specific to most general?
(A) species, family, order, genus
(B) family, genus, order species
(C) species, genus, family, order
(D) order, family, genus, species

ANSWER
(C) species, genus, family, order

12

(Classification Part 1 : Introduction)
Which of the following groups contains all heterotrophic, non-motile organisms with cell walls?
(A) animals
(B) plants
(C) fungi
(D) protists

ANSWER
(C) fungi

13

(Classification Part 1 : Introduction)
Prokaryotic organisms that tend to live in extreme environments generally belong to the domain :
(A) Protista
(B) Eukarye
(C) Archaea
(D) Bacteria

ANSWER
(C) Archaea

14

Quiz A
What adaptations did Darwin observe in finches in the Galapagos Island that suggested natural selection had occurred?

- Differences in beak size and shape varied with the types of food available in the environment.
- Darwin observed that the finches exhibited different beak sizes and shapes depending on the type of food available in the habitat.

15

Quiz A
A scientist is studying a new species of rabbit. The observations of what trait would suggest that the rabbit is well adapted to a desert environment?

- blood vessels close to the skin
- Animal adaptations in hot, dry, desert climates include : longer appendages, blood vessels close to the skin, and paler coloration.

16

Quiz A
What is an example of anatomical homologies that can be explained by the theory of evolution?

- Mammal forelimbs contain the same sets of bones but perform different functions.
- Human, cat, whale, and bat forelimbs contain the same bones but have differing functions. Humans use their forelimbs for carrying things, bats use them for flying, whales use them for swimming, and cats use them for walking. This is an example of an anatomical homology that supports the theory of evolution.

17

Quiz A
What statement correctly describes how biogeography supports the theory of evolution?

- Island species closely resemble the organisms found on the nearest mainland because they share a common ancestor.
- Biogeography explains that closely related species are found in close proximity to one another. Organisms with similar adaptations found in different parts of the world are not closely related; the adaptation evolved independently due to natural selection not from a common ancestor.

18

Quiz A
What statement correctly describes characteristics of an organism in the Domain Eukarye?

- Humans are classified in this domain because their cells contain nuclei.
- The domain Eukarye includes all organisms with nucleated cells and includes the Kingdom Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.

19

Quiz A
What statement correctly describes the characteristics of an organism in the Kingdom Fungi?

- Mushrooms are classified in this kingdom because they are stationary heterotrophs.
- Mushrooms, truffles, and yeast cells are all examples of organisms in Kingdom Fungi. They are classified as types of fungus mainly because they are stationary heterotrophs.

20

Quiz A
What trait can become more common in a mouse population due to natural selection?

- maximum size of ears
- Natural selection can affect only inherited traits, which are passed from parent to offspring. The shape and size of ears is something that is inherited. Traits that an organism acquires during its life, such as injuries or things it has learned, are not passed on to offspring and therefore cannot by affected by natural selection.

21

Quiz A
A scientist discovers a new organism. It is a unicellular prokaryote that is an autotroph. In what group does this organism most likely belong?

- Domain Bacteria
- The organisms in Domain Bacteria are all unicellular prokaryotes.

22

Quiz A
What statement correctly describes the differences between mammals and reptiles?

- Mammals are endothermic and reptiles are ectotherms.
- Mammals are endothermic organisms that produce milk and have hair. Reptiles are ectothermic organisms with scales that lay leathery eggs.

23

Quiz A
What traits are Arthropod characteristics?

- Jointed appendages and segmented bodies
- Arthropods are invertebrates that have jointed appendages, segmented bodies, and exoskeletons composed of chitin.

24

Quiz B
What adaptations are common in animals that live in a cold climate (such as the Arctic)?

- Larger body size and smaller appendages
- Animal adaptations in cold climates include smaller surface area-to-volume ratios, insulating layers from fur and feathers, blubber, and smaller appendages.

25

Quiz B
If a few members of a butterfly population produce caterpillars that have the ability to eat toxic milkweed and make themselves unappetizing to potential predators, what will likely happen to the population over time?

- The caterpillars with the ability to eat milkweed will survive to adulthood more often than those that lack this trait and will pass the trait on to their offspring so that the trait becomes more common in the population with every generation.
- Natural selection occurs when organisms born with a specific advantageous trait live and pass that trait to their offspring. Monarch butterflies become toxic when they eat a milkweed plant as caterpillars, which over time discourages predators from eating them, since the toxin makes them taste bad to predators, like birds.

26

Quiz B
What statement correctly explains how embryological development supports the theory of evolution?

- Turtles, humans, and chicks develop gill slits and a tail posterior to the anus during one stage of their embryological development.
- During the development of embryo of vertebrate species, there is a stage where throat pouches form in addition to a tail posterior to the anus. A common ancestor explains these embryological similarities among developing vertebrate embryos.

27

Quiz B
What is an example of a vestigial organ that supports the theory of evolution?

- Pelvis bones in snakes
- Vestigial organs are the remnants of an organ that served a purpose in an ancestral species but no longer functions and is still part of the organism's anatomy. Pelvis and leg bones are still found in snakes even though they no longer function.

28

Quiz B
What statement correctly describes the characteristics of an organism in the Kingdom Protista?

- Dinoflagellates are classified in this kingdom because they are unicellular eukaryotes that can be autotrophs or heterotrophs.
- The Protista Kingdom is very diverse but mostly includes unicellular organisms with nucleated cells. Some protists are producers and others are consumers. Organisms in this kingdom can be unicellular, multicellular, autotrophic, or heterotrophic but all organisms in this kingdom are eukaryotes, meaning that their cells contain a true nucleus.

29

Quiz B
What domain of classification would include E.coli?

- Bacteria because E.coli have prokaryotic cells.
- E.coli are classified in the Domain Bacteria because they are unicellular prokaryotes.