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(Organisms and the Environment Part 1 : Abiotic and Biotic Factors)
Give examples of ecological studies performed at the population, community, and ecosystem level.

- population : group of individuals of a single species that occupies a given area; studies focus on size and how it changes with time
- community : consists of all organisms that live within a given area; studies focus on interactions between species
- ecosystem : the level in which scientists study both the biotic and abiotic components of the environment (the flow of energy, cycling of chemicals)

1

(Organisms and the Environment Part 1 : Abiotic and Biotic Factors)
What are abiotic and biotic factors?

- abiotic factors : an organisms environment included nonliving, or abiotic features, such as temperature, sunlight, precipitation, rocks, ponds
- biotic factors : living organisms

2

(Organisms and the Environment Part 1 : Abiotic and Biotic Factors)
Which of the following are types of abiotic components of an ecosystem? (Select all that apply)
(A) seeds used as food sources
(B) soil mineral levels
(C) hours of sunlight
(D) lichens

ANSWER(S)
(B) soil mineral levels
(C) hours of sunlight

3

(Organisms and the Environment Part 1 : Abiotic and Biotic Factors)
An ecologist is interested in studying how the number of mountain lions in a certain park has changed over the last decade. What type of ecological study is this?
(A) individual
(B) population
(C) community
(D) ecosystem

ANSWER
(B) population

4

(Organisms and the Environment Part 2 : Species Interactions)
What are examples of competition in ecosystems?

- trees growing taller and taller to compete for sunlight
- animals hunting the same prey
- predators fighting over a kill
- anytime two species in a community use the same resource, that is in limited supply

5

(Organisms and the Environment Part 2 : Species Interactions)
What components are included in a species' niche?

- the total set of biotic (living) and abiotic (non living) resources a species uses within a community
- food eaten, water drunk, space occupied, etc. defines a species role within a community

6

(Organisms and the Environment Part 2 : Species Interactions)
What is symbiosis? What are 3 different kinds of symbiosis?

- close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species
(1) commensalism
(2) parasitism
(3) mutualism

7

(Organisms and the Environment Part 2 : Species Interactions)
Give examples of :
(A) commensalism
(B) parasitism
(C) mutualism

(A) commensalism : a remora hitched a ride on a shark, the remora obtains protection from its hosts and feeds on leftover scraps from the Sharks meals.
(B) parasitism : fleas, tapeworms, and other organisms that live in or in their hosts and obtain nutrients from them
(C) mutualism : fungus receives nutrients from the plant while helping the roots to absorb water and minerals

8

(Organisms and the Environment Part 2 : Species Interactions)
Which if the following is an example of mutualism?
(A) Fleas biting a dog
(B) Mushrooms pairing with tree roots to exchange water and nutrients
(C) A hawk and a snake fighting over a mouse
(D) A mother lion giving up her food for her babies

ANSWER
(B) Mushrooms pairing with tree roots to exchange water and nutrients.

9

(Organisms and the Environment Part 2 : Species Interactions)
What discovery was made that showed the warblers followed the competitive exclusion principle?
(A) The warblers were competing for the exact same resources, but excluding other bird species.
(B) The warblers were actually specialized for certain parts of the tree, so their niches differed.
(C) One species of warbler was the best competitor, so all the other species went extinct.
(D) The warblers did not follow the competitive exclusion principle.

ANSWER
(B) The warblers were actually specialized for certain parts of the tree, so their niches differed.

10

(Organisms and the Environment Part 3 : Biomes)
What is a biome?

- different regions which support various kinds of life (e.g. Forest, grassland, desert, and tundra)

11

(Organisms and the Environment Part 3 : Biomes)
Describe general characteristics of freshwater and saltwater biomes.

- freshwater biomes :
- includes lakes and ponds, rivers, streams, springs, and wetlands
- abiotic factors : speed of the water, climate, amount of sunlight
- biotic factors : contain about 12% of world's known animals, 40% of the world's fish species, many types of plants
- saltwater biomes :
- oceans
- abiotic factors : salinity, depth, light, and temperature
- biotic factors : seaweed, fish, mammals, bacteria, plankton

12

(Organisms and the Environment Part 3 : Biomes)
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the tundra biome?
(A) lichens
(B) reindeer
(C) permafrost
(D) high biodiversity

ANSWER
(D) high biodiversity

13

(Organisms and the Environment Part 4 : Ecological Succession)
What is ecological succession?

- gradual process by which ecosystems change and develop over time

14

(Organisms and the Environment Part 4 : Ecological Succession)
How does primary ecological succession differ from secondary ecological succession?

- primary ecological succession : gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystem or no bottom sediment in an aquatic one
- secondary ecological succession : development of communities in an area in which vegetation has been removed or destroyed, but the soil is not destroyed

15

(Organisms and the Environment Part 4 : Ecological Succession)
What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis? What effect do regular moderate disturbances have on ecosystems?

- as long as they aren't too extreme, the can contribute to biodiversity
- this is true because different species make use of different habitats and periodic disturbances guarantee there will always be habitat at varying stages of recovery

16

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 1 : Food Chains and Food Webs)
Identify the following :
(A) producers
(B) autotrophs
(C) consumers
(D) primary consumers
(E) secondary consumers
(F) tertiary consumers
(G) heterotrophs

(A) producers :
- organisms that use the Sun's energy to make their own food (all plants)
(B) autotrophs :
- organism that makes its own food and sustains itself without eating other organisms
(C) consumers :
- organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains
(D) primary consumers :
- an herbivore
- an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae
(E) secondary consumers :
- a member of the tropic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores
(F) tertiary consumers :
- an organism that eats secondary consumers; other carnivores
(G) heterotrophs :
- organism that gets its energy (organic food molecules) by consuming other organisms

17

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 1 : Food Chains and Food Webs)
Define the following terms :
(A) decomposers
(B) herbivores
(C) carnivores
(D) omnivores

(A) decomposers :
- bacteria that break down nutrients in dead matter into simple pure substances
(B) herbivores :
- an organism that eats only plants
(C) carnivores :
- a flesh-eating animal
(D) omnivores :
- an organism that eats both plants and animals

18

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 1 : Food Chains and Food Webs)
Explain the transfer of energy from the Sun through the food chain.

- Sun's energy reaches plants, which use photosynthesis to create organic matter (biomass)
- primary consumers eat the plants
- secondary consumers eat the primary consumers, etc.

19

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 1 : Food Chains and Food Webs)
Where would hummingbirds appear on the food chain?
(A) producers
(B) primary consumers
(C) secondary consumers
(D) decomposers

ANSWER
(B) primary consumers

20

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 1 : Food Chains and Food Webs)
Which of the following is not an autotroph?
(A) photosynthetic algae
(B) producer
(C) mushroom
(D) plant

ANSWER
(C) mushroom

21

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 2 : Trophic Levels)
Describe how organisms use the energy contained in their food supply

- producers receive energy from the Sun, creating their own energy-rich molecules and food
- consumers gain their energy by eating producers or other consumers; they use the energy to build biomass, feces, and maintenance (energy required to live on)

22

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 2 : Trophic Levels)
What happens to energy as it moves from the first trophic level to the second and third trophic levels?

- energy is lost as you go up the food chain
- approximately 10% is available from one level to the next
- because not every organism at each trophic level is consumed by the next level, when a consumer eats energy goes to other tasks than just creating biomass - specifically feces (organic material unable to digest) and maintenance (energy consumer requires to live : finding food, run, mate, breathe, etc.)
- these activities also cause energy to be lost to the environment as heat

23

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 2 : Trophic Levels)
How much energy is transferred between trophic levels?

- only 10%
- energy is used up as feces, for maintenance, and growth and reproduction

24

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 2 : Trophic Levels)
Why is energy lost to the environment during respiration?

- because when energy is transformed from one form to another, energy gets lost to the environment as heat
- every chemical reaction involves some energy loss to the environment

25

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 2 : Trophic Levels)
Describe an example food chain, with at least four trophic levels. What happens if one of the organisms in the food chain is removed from the ecosystem? Predict what effect that would have on the other organisms.

- Producers :
- entire food system shuts down because there is no food for consumers, all life comes to a halt
- Primary consumers :
- secondary consumers have two options either become extinct or become the primary consumer
- abundance of tertiary consumers
- Secondary consumers :
- there would be an abundance of primary consumers because secondary consumers aren't there to consume them
- Tertiary consumers :
- populations of primary consumers and secondary consumers would explode which could lead to degradation of habitat

26

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 2 : Trophic Levels)
In an energy pyramid, there is less energy at the top of the pyramid because :
(A) not all organisms at one trophic level are eaten by organisms at the next trophic level.
(B) energy is lost to the environment as heat.
(C) maintenance and producing feces use a lot of the energy an organism takes in.
(D) all of the above.

ANSWER
(D) all of the above

27

(Cycles and Energy Flow Part 3 : Nutrient Cycles)
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?

- organic compounds :
- any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
- inorganic compounds :
- does not contain carbon

28

Quiz A
What statement correctly describes an interaction between the abiotic and biotic components of a temperate forest?

- The cold temperatures during winter months result in trees losing their leaves, many mammals go into hibernation, and most birds migrate south to warmer climates.
- Temperate forests have four season, including a warm summer and a cold winter. Temperatures average approximately 0 degrees Celsius and 30 degrees Celsius. The biotic species in the ecosystem adapt to the cold winter by losing leaves, hibernating, and migrating.

29

Quiz A
What is an examples of adaptations of organisms to the cold winter months in a coniferous forest?

- The shape and waxy layer of pine needles helps prevent freezing.
- Conifer trees such as spruce and fir trees have pine needles which are well adapted for the cold climate. The cone-shape of conifer trees also allows snow to fall off so it does jot accumulate and break the branches.