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(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
Describe the difference between a pure substance and a mixture

- pure substance : an element or a compound; a substance with a fixed chemical composition
- mixture : a combination of two or more pure substances

1

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
List examples of pure substances and mixtures.

- pure substance : gold (element), diamond (element), water (compound), methane (compound)
- mixture : ocean water (salt, water, gases, etc.), rocks (different minerals), air (oxygen and water, other elements), not necessarily bonded together.

2

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
What is the difference between a heterogenous and homogenous mixture?

- heterogenous mixture : a mixture in which the components are unevenly distributed
- homogenous mixture : a mixture in which the components are evenly distributed

3

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
List examples of heterogenous and homogenous mixtures.

- heterogenous mixture : citrus fruits, most rocks, mac and cheese
- homogenous mixture : Alloy ring, ammonia mixture, air (local air)

4

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
What is a solution? Give examples.

- a homogenous mixture in which one component is present in a much larger amount than the other component(s)
- cup of tea, coffee, car cleaner, alloys, air

5

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
Identify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture :
(A) oxygen gas
(B) ocean water
(C) blueberry muffin
(D) table salt

(A) oxygen gas : PURE SUBSTANCE
(B) ocean water : MIXTURE
(C) blueberry muffin : MIXTURE
(D) table salt : PURE SUBSTANCE

6

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
Identify each of the following as a homogenous or heterogenous mixture :
(A) sweetened tea
(B) fruit salad
(C) tap water
(D) noodle soup

(A) sweetened tea : HOMOGENOUS
(B) fruit salad : HETEROGENOUS
(C) tap water : HOMOGENOUS
(D) noodle soup : HETEROGENOUS

7

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
Which is an example of a pure substance?
(A) gasoline
(B) ocean water
(C) glucose
(D) air

ANSWER
(C) glucose

8

(Matter Part 1 : Pure Substances and Mixtures)
Which is an example of a solution?
(A) muddy water
(B) sports drink
(C) gelatin with fruit
(D) caramel popcorn

ANSWER
(B) sports drink

9

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
Explain the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.

- solid : a state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume.
- liquid : a state of matter that has a definite volume, but no definite shape
- gas : a state of matter that has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume

10

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
Describe how adding heat to a substance affects the motion and arrangement of the particles

- causes the molecules to move/vibrate quickly
- further heating causes the particles in the liquid to move with such high amplitude vibrations that the attractions they have cannot hold them together
- then they separate from one another forming gas
- melting and evaporating can occur

11

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
Describe how removing heat from a substance affects the motion and arrangement of the particles.

- slower particles move, lower temperature, lower kinetic energy
- eventually can freeze liquid
- condensation and freezing can occur

12

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
What happens to the arrangement of water molecules when it melts and freezes? How is this different that what would normally happen when a substance other than water gets colder and becomes a solid?

- water (melts) : molecules begun to move around more and more and start to spread out, more dense
- water (freeze) : molecules slow down and become more compacted, less dense
- substance other than water (melts) : becomes less dense
- substance other than water (freeze) : becomes more dense

13

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
Which phases changes require an input of heat energy?
(A) melting and freezing
(B) melting and evaporation
(C) freezing and evaporation
(D) evaporation and condensation

ANSWER
(B) melting and evaporation

14

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
Water freezing is different from most other liquids freezing because :
(A) water molecules break down when they freeze
(B) water freezes at a lower temperature than if melts
(C) water molecules are further apart in the solid than in the liquid
(D) water can freeze only if it is under high pressure

ANSWER
(C) water molecules are further apart in the solid than in the liquid

15

(Matter Part 2 : Phases of Matter)
To make tea, a person puts a pot of water on the stove. As the water absorbs the heat from the stove, what happens to the water molecules?
(A) They gain kinetic energy
(B) They bond tightly together
(C) They move more slowly
(D) They become less densely packed

ANSWER(S)
(A) They gain kinetic energy
(D) They become less densely packed

16

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
What are elements?

- substance up of only one kind of atom.
- about 115 elements
- examples : iron, gold, iodine, sulfur, lead

17

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
What are nucleons?

- a proton or neutron

18

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
What is the difference between atomic number and mass number of an atom?

- atomic number : the number of protons in an atom, determines element (kinda like a social security number)
- mass number of an atom : the number of protons and neutrons in an atom, can vary from atom to atom
- example an atom has 7 protons, 5 neutrons, and 7 electrons, what is the mass number? Answer = 12, specifically, nitrogen-12
what is the atomic number = 7 which is Nitrogen on the periodic table

19

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
atom

- the smallest particle of an element
- building blocks of matter

20

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
proton

- located in the atomic nucleus
- +1 charge, positively charged
- large mass (1 amu)

21

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
neutron

- located in the atomic nucleus
- no charge, electrically neutral
- large mass (1 amu)

22

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
electron

- located outside of the atomic nucleus
- -1 charge, negative charge
- bound to electron cloud surrounding the outside of the nucleus
- tiny mass (0 amu)

23

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
An element's atomic number is 14. What does this mean?
(A) Atoms of the element contain 14 neutrons.
(B) Atoms of the element contain 14 protons.
(C) Atoms of the element have a total of 14 protons and neutrons.
(D) Atoms of the element have a mass of 14 amu.

ANSWER
(B) Atoms of the element contain 14 protons

24

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
Which atom has a mass number of 10?
(A) an atom with 14 protons and 4 neutrons
(B) an atom with 10 protons and 10 neutrons
(C) an atom with 6 protons and 4 neutrons
(D) an atom with 8 protons and 10 neutrons

ANSWER
(C) an atom with 6 protons and 4 neutrons

25

(Matter Part 3 : Atomic Structure)
Which atom has the greatest total mass?
(A) an atom with 5 protons and 4 neutrons
(B) an atom with 12 protons and 10 neutrons
(C) and atom with 8 protons and 8 neutrons
(D) an atom with 11 protons and 12 neutrons

ANSWER
(D) an atom with 11 protons and 12 neutrons

26

(Matter Part 4 : Electrons in Atoms)
How can you determine the overall charge of an atom if you know the number of protons and the number of electrons?

- in a neutral atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons

27

(Matter Part 4 : Electrons in Atoms)
In an electrically neutral atom, what must be true if the number of protons and electrons?

- same number of protons and electrons
- +1 charges and -1 charges cancel each other out to create neutral

28

(Matter Part 4 : Electrons in Atoms)
Explain, using a diagram, the shell model of the atom.

- SEE PAPER

29

(Matter Part 4 : Electrons in Atoms)
What are valance electrons? Label them in your diagram.

- an electron in the outermost electron shell of an atom
- determine properties of an element
- stable valence electron is 8 valence electrons