Module 1 : Scientific Concepts & Methodologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 1 : Scientific Concepts & Methodologies Deck (83)
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60

Joule

- it is equal to the energy transferred (or work done) to an object when a force of one Newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one meter (1 Newton meter)

61

Which accurately describes the advantage of using a simple machine, such as a lever?
(A) simple machines reduce the amount of work input
(B) simple machines reduce the amount of distance input
(C) simple machines reduce the amount of force input

ANSWER
(C) simple machines reduce the amount of force input

62

In order to decrease the amount of force that must be applied to move an object a simple machine :
(A) increases the distance over which the force must be applied
(B) decreases the amount of work that must be done to move the object
(C) decreases the distance over which the force must be applied
Or
(D) increases the amount of work that must be done to move the object

ANSWER
(A) increases the distance over which the force must be applied

63

Quiz A
What must be true about a scientific hypothesis?

- Hypotheses must be falsifiable.
- Hypotheses must be capable of being proven wrong.

64

Quiz A
What is important for the formation of scientific hypotheses and the advancement of scientific knowledge?

- Creativity and cooperation
- The advancement of science depends on the ability of scientists to work together and share their knowledge. Cooperation, creativity, communication, patience, and competition are some of the qualities that are important to help form hypotheses, develop theories, and further our scientific understanding.

65

Quiz A
What correctly describes a theory?

- A group of well-tested hypotheses that provide evidence to support explanations for scientific phenomena.
- A theory explains many hypotheses and is supported by extensive evidence.

66

Quiz A
What statement accurately describes the purpose of the scientific method?

- To provide a systematic way for obtaining evidence to support or refute a hypothesis.
- The scientific method provides a way to plan and execute a controlled experiment so that data can be collected to support or refute a hypothesis. Other techniques are also used in science such A model building and computer simulations.

67

Quiz A
What statement correctly describes a scientific hypothesis?

- It is a postulate that must be testable.
- Scientific hypotheses are educated guesses that must be testable and falsifiable (have the ability to be proven wrong).

68

Quiz A
What is the benefit of using a systems approach when studying biology?

- A systems approach focuses on how component parts interact and can then predict how a change in one component affects the whole system.
- A systems approach allows scientists to better understand the unique properties that emerge due to the interactions and relationships that exist between the system components.

69

Quiz A
What topics are included in the study of physics?

- Motion, sound, energy
- Physics is a fundamental study of matter and energy that includes topics such as motion, atoms, forces, and energy.

70

Quiz A
How does a study of science differ from the study of religion?

- Religion is based on faith, beliefs, and spirituality whereas science depends on evidence generated from the experimental scientific method.
- Science and religion seek to find answers to different questions using different means. Science explains physical phenomena using experimentation and evidence whereas religion explains the meaning of life using faith and spirituality.

71

Quiz A
What units are used to measure electricity?

- Ohms, millivolts, amperes
- Ohms are used to measure electrical resistance, millivolts measure potential difference, and amperes measure the rate of electrical flow (current).

72

Quiz A
What is the advantage of using a lever to lift a boulder?

- The lever allows a smaller input force to be exerted over a longer distance to make it easier to move the Boulder.
- The lever decreases the amount of input force required by increasing the distance over which the force is applied. Work input always equals work output so mechanical advantage comes from either changing the distance or the force.

73

Quiz B
How can creativity be helpful to scientists?

- It helps in generating new ideas and new hypotheses to test.
- Creativity is useful and helps scientist generate new hypotheses to test using experimental scientific method.

74

Quiz B
What definition correctly describes a fundamental scientific term?

- A fact is something that has been observed or experienced by many observers and agreed to be true.
- A fact is something experienced and confirmed by many observers, such as seeing the leaves change color in the fall - we could observe this and agree that it is true, and so leaves changing color in the fall could be considered and example of a fact.

75

Quiz B
What are scientific methodologies used to understand scientific phenomena?

- Field studies, experimentation, building models
- Each discipline utilizes different techniques and methods to gain understanding. The discipline of natural science uses techniques such as scientific inquiry, scientific method (controlled experiments)' field studies, model building, computer simulations, etc.

76

Quiz B
A student working on a controlled experiment desires to test the effect of water pH on tomato plant size. What should be controlled?

- Amount of soil, sun exposure, amount of water
- In this experiment the independent variable (what is varied) is the water pH and the dependent variable (what is measured) is plant growth. The variables that need to be controlled (held constant) include : amount of water, amount of soil, type of soil, sun exposure, number of seeds, type of seed, water temperature, tools and materials used, procedures, measurement techniques, etc.

77

Quiz B
What study follows a systems approach for biology?

- Analyzing how the concentration of ions in cardiac cells affects the electrical impulse in the heart.
- A systems approach analyzes the interactions between the component parts that make up a complex system. Reductionism, the opposite approach, focuses on studying individual components to better understand their structure and function. In this example, cells are studied and analyzes to learn more about the heart organ and ultimately, the cardiovascular system.

78

Quiz B
What is an example of a systems approach to studying a forest ecosystem?

- Studying how insects in the first help pollinate the plants.
- A systems approach focuses on the interactions that occur between the parts of a system. Studying the interactions between insects and plants is an example of a systems approach.

79

Quiz B
What topics are studied in the Earth science category of the Natural Sciences?

- Plate tectonics, acid rain, minerals
- Earth science focuses on the structure and processes of the Earth and includes topics such as rocks, minerals, plate tectonics, mountain building, volcanoes, and earthquakes.

80

Quiz B
What is the purpose of science?

- To explain the causes of natural phenomena.
- The purpose of science is to explain physical phenomena using techniques such as controlled experiments, model building, and field studies.

81

Quiz B
What would be measured using micrometers?

- Plant cell nuclei length and mitochondria width.
- Micrometers measure the length, width, and height of small objects that can be seen with a light microscope, including plant nuclei and mitochondria.

82

Quiz B
What correctly describes the mechanical advantage of simple machines?

- A turn of an axle to move a wheel provides a mechanical advantage by decreasing the input force while increasing the distance.
- Turning an axle requires less input force because it increases the distance that the wheel turns.