Module 1 : Scientific Concepts & Methodologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 1 : Scientific Concepts & Methodologies Deck (83)
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30

(Scientific Concepts : Simple Machines)
Can a simple machine reduce the total amount of work that is done to move an object? Why or why not?

- no , the work still needs to get done but we can make it easier by reducing the amount of force

31

(Scientific Concepts : Measurement)
Identify the basic units used to describe each of the following quantities. Include both the name and its abbreviation. Describe a situation where you would use these units.
(A) mass
(B) time
(C) length
(D) current
(E) temperature
(F) volume
(G) energy
(H) power
(I) force
(J) electrical resistance
(K) electrical potential
(L) pH

(A) mass :
- gram (g)
- weight
(B) time
- second (s)
- minutes, hours
(C) length
- meter (m)
- distance, height
(D) current
- ampere (A)
- voltage for power
(E) temperature
- kelvin (K) and degree Celsius (C)
- hot, cold
(F) volume
- liter (L)
- capacity of an object
(G) energy
- joule (J) also known as calories
- how much force you need to do something, lift an apple
(H) power
- watt (W) energy divided by time
- light bulbs
(I) force
- newton (N)
(J) electrical resistance
- ohm (omega symbol)
(K) electrical potential
- volt (V)
(L) pH
- level of acidity
- soil, water

32

(Scientific Concepts : Measurement)
Identify the power of ten associated with each of the following metric prefixes
(A) nano- (n)
(B) micro- (u)
(C) centi- (c)
(D) milli- (m)
(E) kilo- (k)

(A) nano- : one billionth of a unit (n)
(B) micro- : one millionth of a unit (Greek letter u)
(C) centi- : one hundredth of a unit (c)
(D) milli- : one thousandth of a unit (m)
(E) kilo- : (kg) unit of measurement used to measure larger amounts of mass (one thousand times the size of a gram)

33

(Scientific Concepts : Measurement)
How can you combine the basic units no prefixes above to describe quantities?

- 1 cm
centi- (c) + meter (m)
- 150 MW
mega- (M) + watt (W)
-0.5 mJ
milli- (m) + joule (J)

34

(Scientific Concepts : Measurement)
What is pH? What does is measure?

- degree of acidity
- pH < 7 : acid
- pH > 7 : base
- pH = 7 : neutral

35

evidence

- evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis

36

experiment

- a scientific in which a scientist manipulates one or more conditions to see the results

37

controlled experiment

- an experiment in which one condition is allowed to vary and all others are kept constant

38

independent variable

- in a controlled experiment, the condition that the scientist changes on purpose

39

dependent variable

- in a controlled experiment, the condition that the scientist observes to see the effects of changing the independent variable

40

controlled variable

- a condition that is kept the same throughout an experiment

41

field study

- a scientific investigation that is not conducted in a laboratory setting

42

model

- a representation of an aspect of the natural world

43

computational model

- a model created or designed using computers

44

Which of these scientific investigations would be most appropriate as a field study?
(A) determining how a new antibiotic affects bacterial cells in a Petri dish?
(B) calculation how long it takes volcanic ash to move through the atmosphere?
(C) measuring how a hot rock needs to get before it melts?
Or
(D) observing how coral interact with parrotfish?

ANSWER
(D) observing how coral interact with parrotfish

45

A farmer wants to figure out which brand of fertilizer will produce the largest tomato yield. In a controlled experiment, to answer this question, what would be the most appropriate independent variable?
(A) type of tomato plant?
(B) type of fertilizer?
(C) amount of fertilizer?
Or
(D) tomato yield?

ANSWER
(B) type of fertilizer

46

Which of the following questions could not be answered with a controlled experiment?
(A) What kinds of minerals form at a volcano?
(B) How does increasing temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction?
(C) Which type of food helps mice grow fastest?
Or
(D) How does adding salt to water affect how long it takes the water to freeze?

ANSWER
(A) What kinds of minerals form at a volcano?

47

fact

- an observation or phenomenon that all competent observers agree on

48

The Big Bang theory is an important unifying idea in astronomy. What must be true of the Big Bang theory?
(A) it can explain all available evidence and observations?
(B) it allows scientists to make predictions about the natural world?
(C) it is a testable, falsifiable set of ideas?
Or
(D) all of the above are true?

ANSWER
(D) All of the above are true

49

How is a scientific hypothesis different from a scientific theory?
(A) a hypothesis is supported by more observations than a theory?
(B) a hypothesis is broader that a theory is?
(C) a hypothesis is tentative, but a theory is well accepted?
Or
(D) a hypothesis is based on facts, but a theory is a guess?

ANSWER
(C) a hypothesis is tentative, but a theory is well accepted.

50

Which of the following is true of a scientific theory, but not true of a scientific law?
(A) explains natural phenomena
(B) based on personal opinion
(C) testable
(D) supported by evidence

ANSWER
(A) explains natural phenomena

51

reductionist approach

- an approach to studying a system in which the focus is on each part of the system in isolation

52

systems approach

- an approach to studying a system in which the focus is on the system as a whole and the interactions between the parts of the system

53

technology

- the application of science to fulfill a need or address a problem

54

Which of the following is the best example of a systems approach to studying the natural world?
(A) measuring the heir of an oak tree
(B) studying how well a new kind of wire conducts electricity
(C) observing how wolves hunt elk
Or
(D) determining the structure of a cell protein

ANSWER
(C) observing how wolves hunt elk

55

A systems approach would be most useful for studying which of the following systems?
(A) a cell phone
(B) a thermostat
(C) a car
Or
(D) a forest

ANSWER
(D) a forest

56

Which is an example of a scientific discovery leading to new technology?
(A) sonar allowing us to determine the structure of the ocean floor
(B) identification of the electron allowing for the development of electricity
(C) computers being used to analyze human genetic information
Or
(D) people collaborating online to map the surface of the moon

ANSWER
(B) identification of the electron allowing for the development of electricity

57

Which of the following fields of study is concerned with the formation of rocks and the landforms found on the surface of the Earth?
(A) biology
(B) chemistry
(C) physics
(D) geology
(E) astronomy

ANSWER
(D) geology

58

Which is an advantage of using an integrated approach to the study of science?
(A) It enables us to see connections among different fields
(B) It provides a more complete understanding of the concepts bring studied
(C) It enables us to see how systems, as a whole, function
Or
(D) All of the above

ANSWER

59

Which is an example of a question that is appropriately addressed by science?
(A) What is the purpose of human life?
(B) Which painting in the Museum of Modern Art is the most beautiful?
(C) How do Whooping Cranes navigate as they migrate south in the fall?
Or
(D) Should wolves be reintroduced to areas outside Yellowstone National Park?

ANSWER
(C) How do Whooping Cranes navigate as the migrate south in the fall?