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(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Methods)
Explain and give examples of the following components of the scientific method :
(A) observation
(B) question
(C) hypothesis
(D) prediction
(E) reproducible results
(F) conclusion

(A) observation :
- information gathered
- example : What do I see in nature? Can be from one's own experiences, thoughts, or reading
(B) question :
- what you want to know
- Who? What? When? Where? How? Why?
(C) hypothesis :
- prediction or educated guess about what will happen
- select/ develop models, design experiments to test hypothesis
(D) prediction :
- educated guess about what will happen
- if my hypothesis is correct, then I expect a,b,c....
(E) reproducible results :
- whether the results can be replicated
- ability of scientists or other people to reach the same results
(F) conclusion :
- inference about results
- prove or disprove results? Improvements needed?

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(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Methods)
What is the scientific method? How is it used to solve problems?

- A method of of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
- Scientific method is used to solve problems by keen observations, rational analysis, and experimentation

2

(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Methods)
How does creativity play a role in each of the steps of the scientific process?

- question : phrase questions carefully, new questions,
- hypothesis : imagine what could happen, or what you want to investigate
- investigation design : figure out how to test hypothesis, building new tools or equipment
- observation : thinking of best way to do an observation, to avoid bias and come up with observation methods that depend on certain factors
- conclusions : help figure out what the observations mean and come up with conclusions, multiple ways interpret results that creative thinking could help figure out methods to obtain the best results and that nothing is overlooked, recognizing other possible ways to get results
- replication : creativity can used to find out other possible explanations in the event the results cannot be replicated

3

(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Methods)
What did Galileo do to challenge Aristotle's belief that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects? How is what he did related to the scientific method?

- tested observations and ideas of his own and of other philosophers
- was considered of the founding fathers of science
- his tests and experiments set him apart from others because others made assumptions on ideas without experimentation
- dropped a rock and a feather from the Leaning Tower or Pisa and determined that they fell at the same rate
- also determined that it was the wind that stopped the "lighter feather" from descending as quickly as the "heavy rock", but that ultimately they still fell at the same rate if there was no wind to stop either of them

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(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Investigations)
What is important when designing a controlled science experiment?

- elements of challenge, adventure and surprise, along with careful planning, reasoning, creativity, cooperation, competition, patience, and the persistence to overcome setbacks

5

(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Investigations)
Using examples, describe what an independent variable, dependent variable, and controlled variable are.

(A) independent variable :
- in a controlled experiment, the condition that the scientist changes on purpose
- example : faucet
(B) dependent variable :
- in a controlled experiment, the condition that the scientist observes to see the effects of changing the independent variable
- example : quantity of water flow out of faucet when on or off
(C) controlled variable :
- a condition that is kept the same throughout an experiment
- example : water pressure of water from faucet needs to remain constant

6

(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Investigations)
Why is it important that results of scientific experiments be reproducible?

- to ensure the results are valid
- helps eliminate bias and random chance

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(Scientific Methodologies : Scientific Investigations)
Define and give an example of the following items in science :
(A) a field study
(B) computational modeling

(A) field study :
- used in science by naturalists for the scientific study of free-living wild animals in which the subjects are observed in their natural habitat, without changing, harming, or materially altering the setting or behavior of the animals under study
- it helps to reveal the habits and habitats of various organisms present in their natural surroundings
(B) computational modeling :
- the use of mathematics, physics, and computer science to study the behavior of complex systems by computer simulation.
- example : forecasting the weather

8

(Scientific Methodologies : Hypotheses, Theories and Laws)
What is the principle of falsifiability?

- in order for a hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable; it must in principle, be capable of being proven wrong

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(Scientific Methodologies : Hypotheses, Theories and Laws)
Define and give an example of the following items in science. How do each of these terms differ from each other?
(A) fact
(B) hypothesis
(C) theory
(D) law

(A) fact :
- generally something that competent observers can observe and agree to be true not open to interpretation or analysis
- example : the amputated limb of a salamander can grow back
(B) hypothesis :
- a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
- example : if I give a plant an unlimited amount of sunlight, then the plant will grow to its largest possible size
(C) theory :
- a broad synthesis of facts and well tested hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world; supported by a massive body of evidence
- example : no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun
(D) law :
- General hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted, also know as principle
- example : Newton's Third Law - in every action there is always an opposed equal reaction

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(Scientific Methodologies : Hypotheses, Theories and Laws)
Why is evidence important in evaluating scientific claims? How is evidence used to refute scientific claims?

- if expected results of a scientific investigation equal the actual results, the evidence supports the claim
- if expected results of a scientific investigation do not equal the actual results, the evidence refutes the claim

11

(Scientific Methodologies : Science, Technology, and Systems)
How might a systems approach be helpful in studying science?

- a trend in methodology used in specialized sciences and in broader, practical applications in society based on studying objects as systems
- the systems approach permits an adequate formulation of problems in applied sciences and the development of an effective strategy for studying the problems
- the specific methodological nature of the systems approach is determined by directing the investigation toward uncovering the integrity of the object and its mechanisms, identifying the many types of relations within a complex object, and reducing the relations to a single theoretical picture
- a systems approach is useful because it allows you to observe the behavior of an entire biological organization system

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
How are science and technology similarly and different?

- Science is concerned with gathering knowledge and organizing it
- Technology lets humans use that knowledge for practical purposes, and it provides the instruments scientists need to conduct their investigations

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
science

- a systematic way of learning about the natural world that relies on observation, evidence, and objective investigation

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
observation

- information gathered about the natural world using tools or human senses

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
hypothesis

- a prediction about the outcome of a scientific investigation; a proposed explanation for an aspect of the natural world

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
prediction

- a guess about what will happen

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
conclusion

- an inference or summary of the meaning of the results of a scientific investigation

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
reproducible result

- a result of a scientific investigation that has been replicated by others

19

(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
Aristotle

- 384-322 BCE
- never tested ideas
- believed a heavier object causes more damaged when dropped than a lighter object does

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
investigation

- a way to test the hypothesis

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
In a scientific investigation, a hypothesis is
(A) the second step in the investigation?
(B) an explanation for the results gathered in the investigation ?
(C) data collected to test the scientific question?
(D) a testable prediction about the prediction about the outcome of the investigation?

ANSWER :
(D) a testable prediction about the outcome of the investigation

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(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
Which of the following is NOT a part of the scientific methods?
(A) collecting information using tools of the senses
(B) making educated guesses about what will happen
(C) changing or ignoring data that do not agree with your prediction
(D) thinking creatively about how to answer a question

ANSWER :
(C) changing or ignoring data that do not agree with your prediction

23

(Scientific Methodologies Part 1 : Science, Technology, and Systems)
Which of the following is NOT an example of using scientific methods to answer a question?
(A) drawing a conclusion based entirely on logical reasoning
(B) observing a natural system to figure out how it works
(C) collecting data to determine whether a prediction is accurate
(D) repeating an experiment to see if you get the same results

ANSWER
(A) drawing a conclusion based entirely on logical reasoning

24

(Scientific Concepts : Fields of Study)
Define the following branches of science associated with the natural sciences :
(A) biology
(B) chemistry
(C) physics
(D) geology
(E) astronomy

(A) biology : the science that studies living organisms
(B) chemistry : looking at atoms and molecules and how they interact with each other
(C) physics : study of matter and energy and the interactions between the two through forces and motion
(D) geology : study of rocks, how forms of land form, movements of planets, moons, etc.
(E) astronomy : scientific study of the universe and the objects in it, including stars, planets, nebulae, and galaxies

25

(Scientific Concepts : Fields of Study)
Why is an integrated approach very helpful and useful in learning more about our natural world?

- all the sciences are important in explaining the natural world- biology, physics, chemistry, earth science
- understanding the basics of each area will allow you to understand the other areas in more detail

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(Scientific Concepts : Fields of Study)
What are some examples of questions that science can answer? What are examples of questions that science cannot answer?

- can :
- how many western sage grouse currently live in Utah?
- what type of habitat do sage grouse need to thrive?
- how they attract mates?
- cannot :
- should sage grouse be protected as an endangered species?
- do we value having sage grouse around?
- how do we protect the rights of owners of land that include sage grouse habitat?

27

(Scientific Concepts : Fields of Study)
How does science differ from art and religion?

- science asks HOW
- religion asks WHY
- art bridges the two together

28

(Scientific Concepts : Simple Machines)
What is the equation for work?

- work = force x distance

29

(Scientific Concepts : Simple Machines)
Using an example of a simple machine such as a lever, describe how the force and distance input are different than the force and distance output

- Giant wheel of cheese
- really heavy, is going to to take 100 Newton's of force to move and/or lift
- we need to lift it one meter off the ground
- use lever, place fulcrum closer to cheese than to where I'm actually pushing down it will provide a mechanical advantage so I can use less force
- I will use 50 newtons of force to push the lever down, but need to push lever down greater distance
- less force = greater distance
- can help us to do work by reducing the amount of force we have to put in and spreading it out over a longer distance