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Flashcards in Module 1 Exam Deck (106)
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1

Define Anatomy

Form and structure of organs/systems

2

Define Physiology

Function of organs/systems

3

Levels of Organization (6)

1. Chemical
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ system
6. Organismal

4

Chemical level

*simplest level
*involves atoms and moleculeus
*atoms--molecules--macromolecules--organelles

5

Cellular level

*consists of cells
*smalles living structures

6

Tissue level

*groups of similar cells that perform common functions

7

Organ level

*contain 2 or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions

8

Organ system level

*related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve common function

9

Organismal level

*highest level
*all body systems function interdependently

10

6 Characteristics of life

1. Organization
2. Metabolism
3. Growth and development
4. Responsiveness
5. Regulation
6. Reproduction

11

Organ systems (11)

1. Integumentary system
2. Muscular system
3. Skeletal system
4. Nervous system
5. Endocrine system
6. Lymphatic system
7. Cardiovascular system
8. Respiratory system
9. Urinary system
10. Digestive system
11. Reproductive system

12

Function of integumentary system

*protection
*regulate body temp
*site of cutaneous receptors and glands
*synthesizes vit D
*prevents water loss

13

Function of muscular system

*produces body movement
*generates heat w/ muscle contractions

14

Function of nervous system

*regulatory
*controls muscles and some glands
*responds to sensory stimuli
*responsible for consciousness, intelligence, and memory

15

Function of endocrine system

*glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones----regulate development, growth, and metabolism
*maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume
*control digestive processes, and control reproduction

16

Function of lymphatic system

*transports and filters lymph
*participates in an immune response when necessary

17

Function of cardiovascular system

*consists of heart and blood vessels
*heart moves blood in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, gases, and pick up waste products

18

Function of respiratory system

*responsible for exchange of gases between blood and the air in the lungs

19

Function of the urinary system

*filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules
*concentrates waste products in the form of urine
*expels urine from the body

20

Function of the digestive system

*mechanically and chemically digests food materials
*absorbs nutrients
*expels waste products

21

Function of the reproductive system

Male
*Produces male sex cells
*produces male hormones
*transfers sperm to female
Female
*Produces female sex cells
*produces female hormones
*receives sperm from male
*site of fertilization
*site of growth and development of embryo and fetus
*produces and secretes breast milk for nourishment of newborn

22

Define homeostasis

Ability of an organism to maintain consistent internal environment in response to internal or external conditions

23

Negative feedback

*resulting action always in opposite direction of the stimulus
*most processes use this

24

Positive feedback

*stimulus is reinforced to continue in the same direction until a climactic event occurs

25

Structures found in mediastinum (5)

1. Heart
2. Thymus
3. Esophagus
4. Trachea
5. Major blood vessels connecting to heart

26

Serous membrane

*Layer of cells that lines subdivisions of ventral cavity

27

Parietal layer of serous membrane

Lines internal surface of body wall

28

Visceral layer of serous membrane

Lines external surface of organs

29

Superior

closer to head

30

Inferior

Closer to feet