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History of Medicine (c1250 - present day) > Modern Day > Flashcards

Flashcards in Modern Day Deck (58)
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1

What had Robert Koch done by the start of the 1900s?

His work had made the belief of germs universal and people began searching for deeper causes of diseases eg causes connected to the "pathways of the body"

2

What did Archibald Garrod theorise?

In 1902 he theorised that hereditary diseases are caused by missing information in the body's chemical pathways

3

What and when was the work of Rosalind Franklin?

1951 she photographed DNA

4

What and when was the work of James Watson and Francis Crick?

1953 Watson and Crick published a paper proving understanding of its structure meaning that DNA causing hereditary diseases could be explored

5

When was the launch of the Human Genome Project?

1990

6

When was the mapping of the Human Genome completed and what was the effect?

2000
Scientists could use the blueprint of a human's DNA to look for mistakes in the DNA of people suffering from hereditary diseases

7

What Medieval hunch was proven to be correct with scientific evidence?

The importance of diet and exercise

8

What are 4 common technologies used for diagnosis of disease in the 21st century?

- MRI scans
- ultrasound scans
- x-rays
- blood tests

9

When were blood tests first used?

1930s

10

What is the purpose of blood tests?

to test for an enormous number of conditions without the need for invasive diagnosis methods

11

When were MRI scans first used?

1970s

12

How do MRI scans detect disease or injury?

They use magnets and radio waves to create an internal image of the body.

13

What are MRI scans best suited to detect?

Soft tissue injuries such as ligament damage

14

When were X-Rays first used?

1890s

15

What is the purpose of X-Rays?

to see inside the body without cutting into it

16

When were ultrasound scans first used?

1940s

17

How do ultrasound scans detect faults?

They use sound waves to build up a picture inside of the body

18

What are ultrasounds useful for diagnosing?

- Gallstones
- Kidney stones
- Also useful in pregnancies

19

How did the government change during the modern world?

They took a more active role in supporting the public health of the population

20

What was the importance of Paul Ehrlich?

Led the research team that discovered the first chemical cure, Salvarsan 606 in 1909 that cured syphilis

21

What was the importance of Alexander Fleming?

discovered mould that killed the germ staphylococcus in 1928

22

What was the importance of Howard Florey and Ernst Chain?

They took Fleming's research and investigated further, discovering penicillin could kill infections inside the body. They gained US support for mass production of the drug

23

When was prontosil discovered and what was it?

1932, it cured blood poisoning

24

What was the first true antibiotic?

Penicillin

25

What were 3 examples of vaccinations introduced in the 20th century?

1940s - diphtheria
1950s - whooping cough
1960s - tetanus

26

What is a primary example of access to care improving in the 20th century?

The NHS being set up in 1948

27

What happened to apothecaries in the 20th century?

Became less mainstream- growth and understanding of chemical cures meant that the creation of treatments became the work of scientists

28

What happened to hospitals in the 20th century?

Became cleaner, more sophisticated and more high tech because of the acceptance of aseptic procedures, better science, technology and better training of staff

29

By what date were NHS hospitals throughout the UK?

By the 1960s

30

Name 3 examples of new types of surgery in the modern world?

Microsurgery
Keyhole surgery
Robotic surgery