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Flashcards in Migration Deck (13)
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Migration flows as a result of migration

- 2013, 750million internal migrants residing in cities across the world, (1/3 were Chinese rural-urban migrants)
- nearly 1/4billion international migrants now live in a country other than their birth country


What are the two types of international migration?

- economic movers = moved voluntarily for work and improved QOL that higher earnings may bring, majority of migrants
- refugees = people forced to leave homes due to conflict, political or religious persecution or natural disasters including drought and disease


International migration

- between 3-4% of world's population are international migrants
- approximate as illegal migration flow that takes places is only quantitative
- africa, large flow occurs in absence of clear national boundaries and through a lack of policing or surveillance


Global patterns of migration

- 1970&80s, still took place to developed world destinations
- e.g. Paris, result in core-periphery system
- developed economic core = 'braindrain' of skilled workers from global south (Indian doctors joining NHS)
- world cities developing, e.g. Mumbai and Dubai, also begun to function as global immigration magnets


What are the reasons for the proportion of the population comprised as migrants?

- real or perceived economic opportunities states offer
- level of states political engagement with global economy, (adopting liberal immigration rules)
- large volumes of inter-regional migration (SSA to other SSA countries)
- intra-regional flows linking N. America with other regions including S.Africa and C. America
- uneven distribution of economic opportunities within global systems
- brain drain represents economic losses offset by receipt of remittances


Advantages of a shrinking world for migrations

Important developments in last 30 years - internet and low cost airlines - helped accelerate population movements
- heightened connectivity changes our conception of distance and potential barriers to migration:
- perceptual change been described as time-space convergence and more recently as time-space compression
- technology making world feel smaller - long distances cause to be an obstacle to migration


Transport and communication developments and what effect this has on migration

mobile phones - without connectivity people would no know the 'grass is greener' elsewhere
2005, 6%, 2015 60% africans owned a mobile phone
internet - media representations of places may affect people's decisions to migrate, connection can be made by migrants over long distances, making it easier
Air travel - more affordable due to expansion of cheap flights, interconnects Europe cheaply
boeing 747 in the 60s made international travel more common
High speed rail - key link between rural and urban china


Poverty push factor driving international out-migration (economic)

Global periphery (LICs) - 30 classified by world bank, agriculture key to economy
Semi periphery (EEs) - 80 countries, rapid factory expansions and industrialisation, 'middle income countries'
Global Core (HICs) - 80 countries with high ave incomes consisting of office and retail overtaking factory and industrial work (post-industrial)
extreme poverty = movements from poorest countries to source region, table to meet food, clothing and shelter needs, leading to out-migrations
relative poverty = movements from EEs, e.g. Poland, to developed countries, e.g. UK


Primary commodity prices driving international out-migration (economic)

primary commodity = unprocessed food, timber, minerals, ad energy resources
- generates income through trading opportunities, not always good income
- out-migration of skilled ambitious people as less equipment fro schools and hospitals
- overproduction = too many countries grow the same corp, reduces global sale prices
- poor governance = lacked human capital to strike good trade deals, foreign companies take advantage and buy products at a fraction of the real market value


Poor access to markets within global systems driving international out-migration (economic)

- division of world in trade blocs is another reason why poverty still exists
- EU protects farmers by import tariffs on food import from other countries, Kenyans find it hard to get a fair price from EU supermarkets
- high levels of government financial support allow farmers to cheaply produce meat and vegetables
- WTO (world trade organ.) aims to reduce unfair trade barriers and government subsidies globally


Global diaspora communities driving international migration (cultural and political)

- joining an established community may make finding work easier, family members pride support during relocation and settling
- Chinese Diaspora = UK, and Indonesia have significant Chinese populations, e.g. Chinatown districts in London, Bham, etc.
- Indian Diaspora = 28 million in 2016, mainly in USA, UK, SA and Malaysia.
- 'Black Atlantic' Diaspora = African descent move to EUR, and Americas, history of slavery maintained through migration, tourism across the Atlantic


Post-colonial movement of people driving international migration (cultural and political)

- 1950-70s, UK received Caribbean, Indian, Bangladeshi and Ugandan migrants, today these countries are commonwealth members
- fill jobs in labour force after WWII, some directly recruited, e.g. Caribbean London bus drivers
- Large demand in heavy and light industry in the textile mills
- Gaps in skilled labour market with new NHS, many doctors travelled from India/Pakistan and Africa = 'braindrain'


Rules permitting Free movement in the EU, S.America and Africa (political)

- most national border controls within EU removed in 1995 when Schengen Agreement was implemented, making movements within EU easier (food, goods, and people)
- S.American countries signed mercosur residency agreement, people have right to apply for temporary residency in member states, after 2 years, permanent
- African Union break borders through closer integration issued e-passports, permitting visa-free travel between member states