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Flashcards in Midterm Part 2 Deck (36)
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1

What is the term for the study of the distribution and patterns of health and disease and their cases in populations?

Epidemiology

2

What are the 5 popular questions asked by epidemiologists?

How many, who, when, where, and what do they have in common

3

What is the term for the number of existing cases of a disease in a population at a given time?

prevalence

4

What is the term for the number of cases at a specific point in time?

point prevalence

5

What is the term for the number of cases over a specified period of time?

Period prevalence

6

T/F: Prevalence is a measure of risk for developing the disease.

False; this is true of incidence

7

What is the term for the number of new cases of a disease within a specified population during a given time period?

Incidence

8

T/F: Acute diseases do not last longer than a month.

False; acute diseases can last up to 3 months

9

T/F: Chronic diseases are those that last 3 months or more.

True

10

T/F: An endemic disease is one which is constantly present in the community or population.

True

11

What public health term is used when a large number of cases that are out of proportion to what is normally expected?

Epidemic disease

12

What term is used when only a few scattered cases of a disease occur within an area or population?

sporadic disease

13

What is the term used to describe when an epidemic occurs simultaneously on more than one continent?

pandemic disease

14

What is incidence?

a measure of risk for developing the disease

15

T/F: A cause means that things are linked in some way that makes them turn up together.

False; this an association (ice cream does not cause drowning in the summer)

16

"Chiropractic adjustments cause strokes and death" is an example of what?

logical fallacy

17

T/F: causation of a disease outbreak is easy to establish.

False; very difficult

18

Regarding epidemiology, what 3 things are included in Descriptive Studies?

who, when, where

19

What are the two basic types of Analytical studies?

Experimental and observational

20

What kind of research/study is considered the "Gold Standard"

Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)

21

T/F: An RCT is an example of an observational study.

False; experimental study

22

T/F: RCTs are the Gold Standard because bias is minimized and the ability to make causal inferences is enhanced.

True

23

Cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, and case studies are all examples of what kind of study?

observational

24

T/F: Cohort studies are retrospective

False; they are prospective (look forward)

25

T/F: Case-Control studies are retrospective and use existing records to determine populations at risk.

True

26

T/F: During a cohort study, the cohort is identifies in present time and followed up prospectively.

True

27

T/F: Cross-Sectional studies are also known as cohort studies.

False; Cross-sectional aka survey (no follow-up)

28

T/F: Case Reports are useful in describing novel and interesting studies and commonly help to develop hypotheses.

True

29

What are the two main types of Secondary Data Analysis?

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

30

T/F: One of the reasons behind HP2020 is to provide a blueprint to effectively track and address the most important health care needs of people worldwide.

False; HP2020 (Healthy People 2020) is for Americans, not the whole world. Sorry Canada.