Flashcards in Midterm Part 2 Deck (36)
What is the term for the study of the distribution and patterns of health and disease and their cases in populations?
What are the 5 popular questions asked by epidemiologists?
How many, who, when, where, and what do they have in common
What is the term for the number of existing cases of a disease in a population at a given time?
What is the term for the number of cases at a specific point in time?
What is the term for the number of cases over a specified period of time?
T/F: Prevalence is a measure of risk for developing the disease.
False; this is true of incidence
What is the term for the number of new cases of a disease within a specified population during a given time period?
T/F: Acute diseases do not last longer than a month.
False; acute diseases can last up to 3 months
T/F: Chronic diseases are those that last 3 months or more.
T/F: An endemic disease is one which is constantly present in the community or population.
What public health term is used when a large number of cases that are out of proportion to what is normally expected?
What term is used when only a few scattered cases of a disease occur within an area or population?
What is the term used to describe when an epidemic occurs simultaneously on more than one continent?
What is incidence?
a measure of risk for developing the disease
T/F: A cause means that things are linked in some way that makes them turn up together.
False; this an association (ice cream does not cause drowning in the summer)
"Chiropractic adjustments cause strokes and death" is an example of what?
T/F: causation of a disease outbreak is easy to establish.
False; very difficult
Regarding epidemiology, what 3 things are included in Descriptive Studies?
who, when, where
What are the two basic types of Analytical studies?
Experimental and observational
What kind of research/study is considered the "Gold Standard"
Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)
T/F: An RCT is an example of an observational study.
False; experimental study
T/F: RCTs are the Gold Standard because bias is minimized and the ability to make causal inferences is enhanced.
Cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, and case studies are all examples of what kind of study?
T/F: Cohort studies are retrospective
False; they are prospective (look forward)
T/F: Case-Control studies are retrospective and use existing records to determine populations at risk.
T/F: During a cohort study, the cohort is identifies in present time and followed up prospectively.
T/F: Cross-Sectional studies are also known as cohort studies.
False; Cross-sectional aka survey (no follow-up)
T/F: Case Reports are useful in describing novel and interesting studies and commonly help to develop hypotheses.
What are the two main types of Secondary Data Analysis?
Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses