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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (22)
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1

Criminal Investigation

The process of discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying, and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible.

2

Goals of a Criminal Investigation

Determine whether a crime has been committed,
Identify the person through information and evidence, Arrest suspect, Recover stolen property, Present best case to prosecutor.

3

Functions of the Investigator

Emergency assistance, Secure the scene; photograph, videotape, and sketch; takes notes and write report; search for, obtain, and process physical evidence; obtain information from witnesses and suspects; identify suspects; conduct raids, surveillance, stakeouts, and undercover assignments; testify in court.

4

The preliminary Investigation

Question victims, witnesses, suspects; conducts a neighborhood canvass; measure,videotape, photograph, sketch scene; search for evidence; identify, collect, process, package evidence; record observations and statements in notes

5

3 ways to identify suspects

show-up, photo line-up, physical line-up

6

Show-up

bring the suspect back to the scene; as soon as possible but within 2 hours the officer should bring suspect back to the scene of the crime and the suspect should be shown to the victim out of the police car when safely possible

7

Physical line-up

8-12 people must have similar physical attributes; within 2" of actual height - 20 lbs of weight
Suspect has the right to an attorney decided in U.S. v. Ash

8

Photo line-up

up to 6 people - must have similar physical attributes; within 2" of actual height - 20 lbs of weight; all should have glasses, be Hispanic, facial hair or no facial hair.

9

Informant past proven reliable

the information from the informant has been corroborated and has led to arrest; the more arrests the more stock a judge will put in the information

10

interrogation

when the person no longer feels free to leave

11

interview

asking questions to obtain information - a reasonable person would feel free to leave.

12

Questioning juveniles

parental permission is needed - preferably present during questioning

13

Avenues of information

1) reports, records, and databases, including those found on the internet 2) people who are not suspects in a crime but know something about the crime or those involved; 3) suspects in the crime

14

Information sources

internet, neighbors, mailboxes, or landlords, garbage cans left by road

15

types of searches

a search warrant, consent is given, an officer stops a suspicious person and believes the person may be armed, search incident to a lawful arrest, an emergency exists.

16

Terry-Stop

an officer is allowed to pat down a suspicious person for the officer's safety

17

Search incident to arrest

an officer is allowed to search a suspect after a lawful arrest to check for weapons, evidence of a crime, and/or contraband

18

Search Warrant

warrants are issued by judges or magistrates, must have an abundance of probable cause - very specific details as to the place(s) and item(s) to be searched or seized

19

Search with consent

someone gives consent for an officer to search their personal property - written consent is preferred, consent can be revoked at any time during the search.officer is not allowed to search a locked container.

20

emergency search

if an emergency exists then the officer can search the general area to ensure safety concerns

21

day-time search warrant

officer has 10 days to execute warrant, between the hours of 0600-2200, early morning is the safest time to execute a warrant

22

night-time search warrant

3 days to execute warrant between 2200- 0600, very difficult to obtain because there is more invasion of privacy