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1

What is the general initial schema for thinking about/analyzing moral judgments and moral decision-making generally and how does it help to distinguish moral from non-moral disagreements?

Moral Values + non moral facts = Moral Judgements

2

Some examples of non-moral disagreements that affect moral decision-making. How does this show that there is less disagreement about moral value than there can appear to be?

During the first class we had the example of the PVS patient whose family wished to keep his body alive. We found that both HCPs and family value human life but define beginnings and ends of life differently. There was no disagreement about moral value, but there was disagreement about NMFs.

3

What is Cultural Relativism?

Whatever a culture thinks is right must be right for that culture.

4

What are some arguments for CR?

- No one gets to decide for others what is right/wrong
- Promotes tolerance
- promotes respect for others
- There are a lot of moral disagreements between different cultures and no rational way to settle those agreements

5

What are some arguments against CR?

- disagreement does not mean there are no right/wrong answers
- there is a great deal of agreement about moral values, but not a lot of agreement on non- moral facts
- tolerance and open mindedness are moral values therefore it is up to the culture to decide if they want to implement those

6

Why are beliefs in tolerance, open-mindedness, and respect for others as universal values inconsistent with CR

tolerance and open mindedness cannot be universal values if one is a cultural relativist who beleives morality is different from culture to culture

7

What is normative ethics?

How moral values are determined and what makes them justified.

8

What is deontology?

The rightness of deontological theories is determined by how they follow certain moral rules and on their inherent rightness (if someone is dying and they ask you to donate all their money to Scientology- you do it even though you hate Scientology and it may cause more harm overall)

9

What is a consequentialist theory?

Consequentialism focuses on the consequences of the action rather than the rightness of the action. it is determined through outcome not action. (utilitarianism)

10

What is utilitarianism?

Founded by Jeremy Bentham. theory that we should maximize happiness. The sum of all pleasure that results from an action, minus the suffering of anyone inolved in the action. treats all living beings alike.

11

What are Kantian ethics?

- act as if your actions should be universal law (don't lie or everyone would lie)
- principle of respect for persons (never treat anyone as a means to your own end)

12

What are some arguments against utilitarianism?

- may dismiss autonomy (if 5 people need organs- would you kill on person because it maximized happiness?)
- happiness cannot be quantified
-

13

What are the four elements of valid informed consent?

-competence
- full disclosure of relevant information
- voluntary: consent must be voluntary
- patient must consent