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Flashcards in Mid-term Deck (127)
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1

What is an organisation?

common purpose, deliberate structure, people

2

Why do we need organisation?

provide a way for people to achieve goals within, political, economic and social systems

3

Mangers Responsibility Views

Omnipotent -
when profits are up = managers take credit and reward themselves
when profits are down = top management staff replaced, smaller businesses go out of business
Symbolic -
forces outside of managers control maybe be influenced by:
- economy
- market (customer) changes
- government policies
- competitor's actions
- decisions made by previous managers

4

What is Management?

Management is a goal orientated process that involves the allocation of resources and the co-ordination of the talents and efforts of a group of people
Develop, align, integrate purpose, people and process
- management is about success
- management is a process of achieving organisational goals through : Four functions of managerial process

5

Four Functions of the Managerial Process

Planning - setting goals and determining how to accomplish them
Organising - implementation phase: assigning tasks and allocating resources and co-ordinating
Leading - influencing others to do their best work for the organisation
Controlling - measuring performance against desired result

6

What do managers actually do?

- work long hours
- work at an intense pace
- work is fragmented and varied
- work with many communication media
- work largely through interpersonal relationships

7

Levels of Managers

Top managers
Middle managers
Project managers
Team leaders or supervisors

8

Managerial Roles

Interpersonal roles
Informational roles
Decisional Roles

9

Managers Need Skills

Technical
Human
Conceptual

10

Effectiveness vs Efficiency

effectiveness = "doing the right thing"
- measure of task or goal accomplishment
efficiency = "doing things right"
- measure of resource cost associated with goal accomplishment

11

History Important?

ideas and practices developed many years ago have an influence in shaping our beliefs and practices today
- understanding the past, can develop for today

12

Preclassical contributors

Robert Owen (1771-1858)
cotton mill owner that pioneered ideas about better treatments of workers
He proposed:
- limiting employment in factories to workers over 10
- reducing the workday to 10 an half hours
-prohibiting night for children
Henry R. Towne (1844-1924)
- establishment of science of management principles

13

Approaches to Management

Classical Approach:
- scientific management
- administrative management
- bureaucratic management
Quantitative Approach
Modern Approach:
- systems theory
-contingency theory

14

Classical Approach: Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)
(the father of scientific management)
- addressed the question of how to increase productivity given a shortage of labour

15

Four Principles of Scientific Management

1. Study task and work out best method
2. Select workers with right abilities
3. Carefully train workers and give the proper incentives
4. Support workers through careful planning

16

Classical Approach: Administrative Management

Focuses on the principles that can be used by managers to co-ordinate the internal activities of the organisation
- Henry Fayol (1841-1925) defined the four managerial functions
- Mary Parker Follet = employee ownership, profit sharing

17

Classical Approach: Bureaucratic Management

Emphasis the need for organisations to operate in a rational manner rather than relying in the arbitrary whims of owners and managers
- Max Weber (1864-1920) coined the term 'Bureaucracy' to apply to the idea of large organisations operating on a rational basis

18

Major Characteristics of Weber's idea bureacracy

-clear division of labour
-well-defined hierarchy
-formal rules and procedures
-impersonality
-career advancement based on merit

19

The Hawthorne Effect

The possibility that individuals singled out for a study may improve their performance simply because of the added attention they receive from researchers, rather than because of any specific factors being tested

20

Human Relations Approach

-The key to productivity, at that point, appeared to be demonstrating greater concern for workers
- Emphasis on building more collaborative and co-operative relationships between supervisors and workers
-allowed for self-actualisation

21

Example of theory

Douglas McGregor developed the 'Theory X/Theory Y' dichotomy
-Theory X managers tend to assume workers are:
lazy need to be coerced, little ambition
-Theory Y managers tend to assume workers are:
like work, capable of self-control, creative and innovative

22

Behavioural Science

-job satisfaction
-motivation
-interpersonal behaviour
-group dynamics
-communication
-leadership

23

Quantitative Approach

- this was a movement back to rational, scientific approach and was adopted because of the need to solve complex problems in business
- this approach focuses on the use of mathematics, statistics and information systems to assist and support managerial decisions making and enhancing organisations effectiveness

24

Modern Approach

This viewpoint grew from recognising that no one model or universally theory fits all organisations
- people and situations are complex and variable and can change over time
- variances must be taken into account

25

Modern Approach: systems theory

1. Inputs
2. Transformations
3. Outputs
4. Feedback from environment

26

Modern Approach: Contingency theory

appropriate managerial action depends on the situation

27

What is operations management?

Is the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming the inputs into the outputs
- in manufacturing
- in services
productivity = outputs/inputs
- competitive advantage: allows an organisation to deal with market and environmental forces better than competitors

28

Product and Service Design

The product design affects:
- the appeal to the customers
- its costs and usability
Today customers often think how a product looks is just as important as how it works

29

Product Strategy Options

Differentiate
Low price
Rapid Response

30

Product Development Decisions

An effective product strategy links product decisions with:
-producibility
-cost
-quality
-reliability