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Flashcards in Microbiome Deck (28)
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1

All the microorganisms inhabiting a human body, including viruses, prokaryotes, protozoa, fungi

Microbiota

2

Estimate of cells in the human microbiota

1018 cells

3

How many bacterial cells are in the human body?

Almost as many as human cells

4

What may flip the ratio of human/bacterial cells?

Each defecation event

5

What abolished mating preference in Drosophila and what does this suggest?

Antibiotic treatment, suggesting that the fly microbiota was responsible for the phenomenon.

6

What does the Drosophila study suggest in humans?

Microbiota can affect our behavior and brain development.

7

The full complement of all proteins

Proteome

8

Complete coding region of a genome

Exome

9

All possible microbes living in a particular niche

Microbiota

10

Genes from all possible microbes living in a particular niche

Microbiome

11

A set of features shared across all or the vast majority of gut microbiomes

Core human gut microbiome

12

In the human microbiome, how many unique genes are there compared to the human genome?

100x more unique genes than human genome (which has about 20,000)

13

The pool of genes commonly found in a community

Core metagenome

14

Techniques to study diversity of the microbiota

FISH
T-RFLP
PCR
Phylogenetic microarray
Pyrosequencing

15

Problems in studying metagenome of the GI tract

Contamination from consumed microbes
Artifacts of assay technique
Sampling -- fecal vs. intestinal biopsy
Spatial/temporal variability is not yet clear
Standardization among different groups for methods of study and reporting the 'microbiota' of a patient

16

What is probiogenomics designed to identify?

The genetic determinants involved in the health promoting effects of probiotic bacteria

17

Clusters of bacterial species that are shared among different groups of people

Enterotypes

18

Enterotypes are an important potential source of _________

Diagnostic biomarkers -- 12 bacterial genes significantly correlate with human age, and three groups of genes correlate with BMI

19

What is dysbiosis?

Abnormal microbial ecosystem in host

20

_______ are also permanent residents of the microbiota and have the potential to induce pathology.

Pathobionts

21

The microbiota plays a critical role in what immune-related process?

Secondary lymphoid structure development

22

How does gut bacteria relate to the immune system?

Gut bacteria are an important factor not only in development of gut immune system but even structure

23

Results of the pAOS study
**I am v convinced this will be a question**

Diet enriched by pAOS resulted in increased bacterial clearance in the lungs and increased production of butyrate and propionate.

24

The LDP study showed that ________ can determine long-term host metabolic effects.

Microbiota interactions in infancy

25

Results of the LDP study
**Could be a question**

These studies provide evidence that LDP exposure enhances the HFD metabolic effects. These effects can be life-long and transmissible to another mouse by transferring the microbiota.

26

How has bacteria been related to tumor growth?

Indirect mechanisms involving chronic activation of the immune system

27

How is obesity an example of dysbiosis?
**Dysbiaquestion I'm pretty sure**

Microbiota increase serum levels of glucose and SCFAs

Gut microbiota regulates angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4 aka Fiaf), an important gut-derived regulator of host lipid metabolism

Gut bacteria can initiate the inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

Microbial regulation of host genes that promote deposition of the lipids in adipocytes

28

Fecal transplantation (IMT) resolved C. diff infections in what percentage of cases?

92%