Flashcards in Microbiome Deck (28)
All the microorganisms inhabiting a human body, including viruses, prokaryotes, protozoa, fungi
Estimate of cells in the human microbiota
How many bacterial cells are in the human body?
Almost as many as human cells
What may flip the ratio of human/bacterial cells?
Each defecation event
What abolished mating preference in Drosophila and what does this suggest?
Antibiotic treatment, suggesting that the fly microbiota was responsible for the phenomenon.
What does the Drosophila study suggest in humans?
Microbiota can affect our behavior and brain development.
The full complement of all proteins
Complete coding region of a genome
All possible microbes living in a particular niche
Genes from all possible microbes living in a particular niche
A set of features shared across all or the vast majority of gut microbiomes
Core human gut microbiome
In the human microbiome, how many unique genes are there compared to the human genome?
100x more unique genes than human genome (which has about 20,000)
The pool of genes commonly found in a community
Techniques to study diversity of the microbiota
Problems in studying metagenome of the GI tract
Contamination from consumed microbes
Artifacts of assay technique
Sampling -- fecal vs. intestinal biopsy
Spatial/temporal variability is not yet clear
Standardization among different groups for methods of study and reporting the 'microbiota' of a patient
What is probiogenomics designed to identify?
The genetic determinants involved in the health promoting effects of probiotic bacteria
Clusters of bacterial species that are shared among different groups of people
Enterotypes are an important potential source of _________
Diagnostic biomarkers -- 12 bacterial genes significantly correlate with human age, and three groups of genes correlate with BMI
What is dysbiosis?
Abnormal microbial ecosystem in host
_______ are also permanent residents of the microbiota and have the potential to induce pathology.
The microbiota plays a critical role in what immune-related process?
Secondary lymphoid structure development
How does gut bacteria relate to the immune system?
Gut bacteria are an important factor not only in development of gut immune system but even structure
Results of the pAOS study
**I am v convinced this will be a question**
Diet enriched by pAOS resulted in increased bacterial clearance in the lungs and increased production of butyrate and propionate.
The LDP study showed that ________ can determine long-term host metabolic effects.
Microbiota interactions in infancy
Results of the LDP study
**Could be a question**
These studies provide evidence that LDP exposure enhances the HFD metabolic effects. These effects can be life-long and transmissible to another mouse by transferring the microbiota.
How has bacteria been related to tumor growth?
Indirect mechanisms involving chronic activation of the immune system
How is obesity an example of dysbiosis?
**Dysbiaquestion I'm pretty sure**
Microbiota increase serum levels of glucose and SCFAs
Gut microbiota regulates angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4 aka Fiaf), an important gut-derived regulator of host lipid metabolism
Gut bacteria can initiate the inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity
Microbial regulation of host genes that promote deposition of the lipids in adipocytes