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Flashcards in micro-organisms summary Deck (30)
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1

what are moulds?

they are filamentous fungi that cause superficial infection but can be systemic e.g. aspergillosis

2

what do moulds form?

a mat of mycelium - this may have a septate

3

what are multiple fungal cells?

mycelium - collection of hypha

4

how do moulds replicate?

the mould spore are produced in the sporangium and it depends on the type of tissue that you have as to whether there is a fruiting body produced as well

5

what size are helminths?

they are macroscopic

6

what types can helminths be?

intestinal or non-intestinal but these can migrate to the intestines

7

what are protozoa?

they are eukaryotes that arent plants or fungi

8

what do ciliates have?

cilia outside their cells

9

what do flagellates have?

flagella on surface to aid movement

10

what is acomplexa?

special bodies to infect certain things

11

how do parasites replicate?

can have vectors and multiple hosts

12

what do some parasites form?

cysts - similar to the endospore in bacteria

13

what do viruses require?

a pay load - RNA or DNA and a host cell to replicate

14

what is the protein coat made of?

it is a capsid made up of capsomeres

15

how are viruses classified commonly?

based on symmetry

16

do viruses have a cell wall?

no - they can be covered in a lipid envelope from the cell membrane of the original cell they infected or can be nakes

17

how can viruses escape from cells?

they can burst out and escape or bled out and take some of the membrane with them which avoids the immune system of the host

18

what can RNA strands be?

positive or negative sense

19

what is required of negative sense before the ribosome and why?

converted to positive sense so can be made into protein

20

how is positive strand RNA made from RNA?

reverse transcriptase makes RNA into cDNA and then to postivie RNA

21

how are virus families names?

based on the presence of DNA or RNA

22

what determines which cells are infected by viruses?

tissue tropisms

23

how are viruses recognised?

through standard take or receptor mediated endocytosis after attachment

24

what happens once the virus is in the host cell?

it uncoats and releases genetic material

25

how are cellular processes of the host cell taken over by the virus?

using intergrase

26

what are prions?

proteinatious infectious particles

27

how is a cascade formed by prions?

misfolded proteins can induce other proteins to misfold

28

what happens to amyloid that is produced?

it aggregates

29

what is the effect of prion infection?

sponge like holes in the brain - deterioration of brain function

30

why are prion infections lethal?

they are hard to eradicate and cannot be treated