Flashcards in MFT Theories Deck (49)
Key concepts: Anxiety, differentiation* emotional cutoff, emotional process, fusion and cutoffs, triangulation..
Problem: Lack of differentiation leads to dysfunction in the family (can't separate thoughts and feelings)
Therapist: is neutral, objective, coach, and I position
Methods: process over content, genogram, detriangulation, therapeutic triangles, long term therapy
The ability to distinguish between thinking and feelings within self and others
*primary skill in developing ones self and solving problems
Founder: Ivan Boszormengyi-Nagi
Concepts: destructive entitlement, ledger and transactions, parentification, fairness, loyalty, multidirectional impartiality
Problem: relationships break down when fairness, care, and accountability are absent-eroding and breaking trust between members.
Change: balancing the ledger, deparentification, restoring, trustworthiness, take responsibility
Therapist: active guide, often co-therapy, relational balance
Founder: Jill & David Scharff, James Framo
Concepts: based on attachment expectations formed in unresolved family of origin issues; insight based; transference to others and therapist; Freuds process/perspective
Problem: Negative experiences are projected onto others in an attempt to resolve the negative experience.
Change: Individuation, resolution of negative aspects being projected, detachment from "bad" object
Therapist: Non -directive, observing, insight
Founders: Weakland, Don Jackson, Watzlawick
Concepts: communication theory; 1st & 2nd order change; feedback loops; focus on the presenting complaint; repetitive patterns of family interactions
Problem: attempts at solutions become the problem; circular causality; "more of the same" maintains problem
Change: goals are small and clear; altering patterns of behaviors; change in one part, leads to change in others
Therapist: active, process over content, therapist responsible for outcomes, consulting team w/ 1 way mirror*
Founder: Jay Hayley & Cloe Madanes
Concepts: the structure is the problem; flexibility; strategic humanism;
Problem: dysfunctional heirarchy produces maintained failed solutions; failed life cycle transitions; triangulations and coalitions
Change: increase flexibility; new strategies for developmental change, establish proper heirarchy, eliminate triangulation and coalition.
Therapist: active and joins with the family; use language of the family; observe sequence and structure-reframing, enactments..
Founder: Mara Palazzoli and others..
Concepts: new epistemology, allows new ways of interacting; positive connotation*; invariant prescription; homeostasis; change beliefs rather than behaviors
Problem: family caught in power game; problems maintained by interactional sequences; homeostasis resists attempts to change; old way of living, doesnt fit the new way
Change: develop new epistemology by delivering new information to the system
Therapist: observing teams; mixed gender dyads; neutrality; hypothesizing; circular questioning
Concepts: family structure; subsystems; boundaries; coalitions, alliances, and triangles; enmeshment*; parentification; structural maps;
Problem: inflexible family structures fail to adapt to developmental challenges; rigid or diffuse boundaries; enmeshed or disengaged relationships
Change: reorganize the family structure; correct hierarchies; clear and flexible boundaries b/w subsystems; get families unstuck from old patterns
Therapist: active; directive; leadership; accomodation; observant of patterns; determine the structure; boundary making; challenging;
Found: Whittaker and Satir
Concepts: battle for structure and initiative; craziness; intimacy and separateness; family reconstruction; growth through shared experience; human validation model
Problem: poor distress tolerance; intolerance for differences; rigidity; feeling avoidance; scapegoat provides relief from anxiety; triangles/teaming roles
Change: more genuine interactions; interactional insight through shared experiences; increased ability to experience emotion
Therapist: involved and active; self disclosing, responsive, warm and positive; consultant; directive.
Methods: sculpting, parts party, in session interaction
Founder: Sue Johnson & Greenberg
Concepts: attachment theory; negative interaction cycle; core conflicts; primary and secondary emotions; dependence/ independence.
Problem: perceived danger and relational insecurity leads to reactive behaviors in a recursive pattern of negative interactions
Change: access primary emotions; change interactional patterns through new experiences; create secure attachments
Therapist: unconditional positive regard
Founders: Shazer and Insoo Berg
Concepts: focus on solutions and not problem; co-construction; exceptions; finding when the problem isnt a problem; focus on the future; language creates reality; scaling
Problem: repetitive focus on the problem puts limits on potential solutions; "if there are no symptoms, there aren't any problems.."
Change: focus on solution behaviors; learn from exceptions
Therapist: directive; lead solution; co-construct new solutions-formulate exceptions; focus on what already works-miracle question
Founder: Michael White
Concepts: problem-saturated stories; emphasis on meaning; re-authoring; externalize the problem; reality is constantly constructed
Problem: dominant stories of the problem subjugate alternate narratives; internalization of the problem; meanings trapped in time.
Change: develop new meanings; finding alternative solutions and narratives; formulating a new story
Therapist: neither direct nor indirect; clients have voice in tx process; establish collaborative atmosphere
Founder: Harlene Anderson and Goolishian
Concepts: language creates meaning; problem determined system; problem dissolving; reality/knowledge is socially constructed
Problem: problems are maintained by stories told to oneself; the constructed meaning of the problem prevents new meanings which can dissolve the problem
Change: generate new meanings through new language; new action to resolve.
Therapist: not knowing position; non-expert; honor clients reality; responsive; compassionate; co-exploration
conversational questions; expanding the meaning.
Term by Norbert Weiner
"is to describe systems that are self regulating by means of feedback loops-can be either negative or positive
theory that states : parts of a system are interrelated and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts-- i.e. an individuals behavior is connected to other members behavior and reflects the family system rules
General Systems theory
Who was considered a "hypnotherapist"
term that describes: people in continuing relationships develop rule determined, repetitive patterns of interactions.."
term that states: a systemic pretense of harmony and closeness that masks conflict and blocks intimacy- have an unnatural fear of separation
term that states: a noisy and intense way of masking and distorting both affection and splits
this was used in the Milan systemic approach- these engaged the family in behaviors that violated the family rules..
used to foster change through paradox by complimenting family members for devising the symptom to maintain homeostasis as well as enjoining the family from changing
terms that states: is a self correcting mechanism by which families attempt to adjust deviations from established patterns and maintain their organizational integrity
term that states: 2 or more systems or subsystems exhibit similar or parallel structures
therapist experiences a family that rejects for change; therapist then suggestions from a particular subsystem to alter tx approach
term that states: a systems tendency towards growth, creativity, change, and innovation
similar to amplifying feedback loops
term that states: how something is said; dynamic aspects that are changing within the system
The primary domain of human systems theory is what?
This states that a genuine systemic analysis must include an understanding of system components- which are the two aspects of an individuals participation in a system; focus is on what passes among individuals and what goes on within the individuals
ONE CANNOT NOT COMMUNICATE
term that states: are models by which incoming information is perceived, understood, transformed, and stored together with a corresponding repertoire of behavioral response options
-shape action and communication
-can be expandable and flexible or rigid and limiting
term that means: nonverbal communications that includes body language, stance, and preferred physical distance