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1

Multi-store model

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shriffin (1968, 1971)
Describes how information flows through the memory system. The model suggests that memory is made up of three stores linked by processing

2

How many stores does the sensory register have

One for each sense

3

Two main stores in sensory register

Iconic memory
Echoic memory

4

Iconic memory

Visual info is coded visually

5

Echoic memory

Sound or auditory info is coded acoustically

6

Coding of sensory register

Modal

7

Capacity of sensory register

Very large

8

Duration of sensory register

< 0.5s

9

Maintenance rehearsal

Repeating material to ourselves over and over again
Keeps things in our STM's

10

Coding of STM

Acoustically

11

Capacity of STM

Limited, 5-9 things

12

Duration of STM

30s unless rehearsed

13

Retrieval

Moving info from LTM to STM so we can recall it

14

Coding of LTM

Semantically

15

Capacity of LTM

Unlimited

16

Duration of LTM

Forever

17

How do we move things from the sensory register to STM

Paying attention

18

How do we move things from the STM to the LTM

Prolonged rehearsal

19

Strengths of multi-store model

The case of HM --> Removed hippocampus (epileptic), unable to encode new LT memories but STM was unaffected
The case of Clive Wearing --> brain damage, has working STM but not LTM
Supported by research showing LTM and STM are different

20

Weaknesses of multi-store model

Too simple, not enough evidence to suggest that STM is not a unitary store --> Shallice and Warrington (1970)
LTM involves more than maintenance rehearsal --> Craik and Watkins (1973)

21

Shallice and Warrington (1970)

Studied KF
STM for digits was poor when read out loud but recall was much better when he read to himself

22

Craik and Watkins (1973)

Found that elaborative rehearsal is also needed which is where you link the info to your existing knowledge, or you think about what it means

23

Digit span technique

Assesses capacity of STM (Joseph Jacobs (1887))
Average span for digits was 9.3 items and 7.3 for letters

24

Why is it easier to recall digits

10 digits vs 26 letters

25

George Miller (1956)

People can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters - 'chunking' enables us to remember more

26

Baddeley (1966a, 1966b)

Tested LTM by asking to recall word list they learnt 20 mins ago - not actually LTM

27

Jacobs (1887)

Capacity isn’t the same for all
Findings show digit recall increased steadily with age. Average for 8yo - 6.6 digits and 8.6 for 19yo

28

Vogel et al (2001)

Found 4 items were upper band of capacity of STM.
Millers range is inappropriate - too high

29

What does working memory model explain

How STM is organised and how it functions

30

What is the WMM concerned with

Part of the mind that is active when we are temporarily storing and manipulating information