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Flashcards in Medicine on the Western Front Deck (65)
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1

What was the problem with horse drawn ambulances?

- Artillery shells and bombs destroyed many roads making them unusable
- men were shaken about making their injuries worse
- it was very slow and often lead to capture

2

Why were motor ambulances eventually used?

public donations

3

Why did the British revert to using horse drawn ambulances even after receiving funding for motor ones?

The motor ones couldn't operate in muddy conditions

4

How many horses were used in the muddiest conditions?

6 instead of the usual 2

5

When did the first ambulance train arrive?

October 1914

6

What did the RAMC use before the ambulance train arrived?

French cargo trains

7

What did the most advanced ambulance trains have?

Operating theatres

8

What were the advantages of barge ambulances over train?

- harder targets for the Germans
- allowed wounded to bypass Base Hospital and be taken straight back to Britain

9

What were the 3 main injuries / diseases / illnesses on the western front?

Trench foot
Trench fever
Shellshock

10

What were the symptoms of trench foot?

Painful swelling of the feet caused by standing in cold mud and water. In the 2nd stage, gangrene set in

11

Define gangrene

the decomposition of body tissue due a loss of blood supply

12

What was the solution for trench foot?

Preventions and if gangrene developed, amputation of the leg

13

What were the preventions for trench foot?

Keeping feet dry
Regularly changing socks
rubbing whale oil into feet

14

What were the main symptoms of trench fever?

Flu like symptoms with high temperature, headache and aching muscles

15

Why was trench fever a major problem?

It affected half a million men on the western front

16

What was the approach to defeating trench fever?

In 1918 when it the cause was identified with lice delousing stations were set up

17

What was the effect of delousing stations?

The numbers experiencing trench fever declined

18

What were the symptoms of shellshock?

tiredness, headaches, nightmares, loss of speech, uncontrollable shaking and complete mental breakdown

19

What was shellshock later identified as?

PTSD

20

How many british troops experienced shellshock?

80,000

21

What were the treatment methods for shellshock?

Treatment back in britain for major cases
Some soldiers were accused of cowardice and punished - some were even shot

22

Why could minor wounds lead to death?

the soil was filled with rich fertiliser that carried bacteria that could cause gangrene infections

23

When was the brodie helmet introduced?

1915

24

What was the effect of the brodie helmet?

Reduced head wounds by 80%

25

What was the previous alternative to the brodie helmet?

a flat cap

26

When was chlorine gas first used?

April-May 1915, Second Battle of Ypres by the Germans

27

What were the effects of chlorine gas?

death by suffocation

28

What were the original gas masks made of?

Cotton pads soaked with urine pressed to soldier's faces

29

When were gas masks introduced?

1915

30

When was phosgene gas first used?

end of 1915, near Ypres