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Flashcards in Media in Children's Lives Deck (29)
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What is the percentage of parents that use television as a babysitter?

42% think it is good for children's education.


What could children's screen time be predicted by?

Parents' use and attitudes.


What did Sesame street teach children?

Children gained more knowledge about cognitive (colours, letter, shapes) and social (malaria, healthy eating) areas than prosocial (anti-prejudice) areas.


Which show improved narrative in children?

Uchikoshi (2005) - Arthur (as opposed to between the lions).
Arthur is beneficial for narrative structure learning.


Which show improved literacy skills in emerging readers?

Linebarger et al (2004) - Between the lions lead to better word recognition + greater increases in letter naming, phonemic segmentation + nonsense word fluency.
No improvement on reading.


What is the controversy around the Mozart effect?

It is incorrect. Listening to Einstein does not increase anything.


What did watching baby Wordsworth improve?

Robb et al (2009) - nothing. it did not increase word learning.
Parent-child book reading was related to vocabulary instead.


What did Linebarger & Walker (2005) discover about different types of programs?

Blue clues, Dora, Clifford = vocabulary development.
Teletubbies + Sesame street = no vocabulary increases.
Weakness of study - sesame street is aimed at older audiences. Teletubbies don't speak, so how would vocabulary increase?


How is background television related to parent talk?

Pempek et al (2014) - utterances per min is 1/2 when television is on. New words + words per min decrease in television condition (as opposed to no television) - television is distracting.


What are the short and long-term effects of violence on television?

Huesmann (2007).
ST - priming violence, arousal, mimicry.
LT - observational learning, desensitisation.
Another study - children who watched power ranges were 8x more likely to hit another child in the playground.


Name the two main negative effects of television discussed in the lecture.

Aggression - viewing violence makes it seem more acceptable and effective in solving interpersonal conflict.
Sexuality - adolescents. More TV = more likely to assume peers are sexually active + more likely to engaged in sexual intercourse themselves. Viewing sexual content can also be linked to a higher likelihood of pregnancy.


What is magic window thinking (Valkenburg, 2004)?

Tendency of very young children to believe that television images are real.
"I used to believe TV was just another window in our house and the Sesame street characters were my neighbours".


How many parents think computers are good for children's learning?

70% use devices for children when doing house chores. 65% to keep the children calm...


How many children aged 3-4 can engage in media multitasking?

At age 3-4 they can also use devices without help.
Weakness - this may not be accurate. Babies can point to apps but can't search and set up things.
Most use tablets as a TV - to watch shows. This is controversial as researchers say TV research is outdated but most tablets are used as a TV anyway.


What percentage of the top 100-selling apps target preschool and elementary aged children?

Shows how apps for toddlers are a significant market.


What are the 4 pillars of learning?

Active learning.
Engagement in the learning process.
Meaningful learning.
Social interaction - like co-viewing + collaborative learning.


Can children learn letters from an app?

D'Agostino et al (2016) - struggling 6-7yos. Half assigned to apps, half assigned to letter finding and sorting task.
Apps surpassed others on letter identifications - speed learning?
Still, teachers did not like it because of their beliefs!


How can interactive e-books help learning?

Smeets & Bus (2015) - maths games, regular reading on computers, animated book, interactive book.
Vocabulary increases - interactive e-book had largest effect. Animated book was second largest. No differences in story comprehension.


When can children distinguish television ads?

Age 5.
This is harder on web pages - only 26.6% recognise them at age 6 with a price as opposed to 76.9% at age 10.


When can children distinguish persuasive intent in ads?

Age 8.


How can advertising influence children's choices?

Buijzen & Valkenberg (2010) - children see an advert - make more purchase requests (which lead to more materialistic attitudes) - parent-child conflict leads to more disappointments/life dissatisfaction.


What are the two major steps in understanding advertisements?

Being able to recognise an advertisement.
Realising that advertisements aim to persuade people to purchase a product.


Why do children believe there are advertisements (age 6-7 compared to 8-9)?

Adronikidis (2010) - 6-7 - they are necessary, otherwise, we would not know what to buy.
8-9 - they are made by advertising companies and paid for by those that have the products.


What type of adverts are advertised on children's websites?

Cereal - 45%, fast-food - 19%, fruit and veg - 0.1%.
Only 16% of sites met standards for HFSS.


What did Boyland (2013)'s study show about the effects of advertising on children?

Children were more likely to eat Walker's crisps when having seen the Walker's advert or the football advert with the endorser - association.


What is the no HFSS rule on television advertising?

No HFSS ads on children's channel. No HFSS ads on non-children's channels when particular programmes are appealing to 4-15yos.


What is the socio-cultural theory?

Children develop through their participation in everyday interactions (e.g. parent-child conversations). Here they revise their folk theories.


What are the two main media theories?

Cultivation analysis (Gerbner) - repetition of information. Views + behaviours of those who spend more time with media, internalise and reflect what they have seen on TV.
Drench hypothesis (Greenberg) - critical images in media have the powerful effect of being able to overshadow/overwhelm stereotypical or recurrent images that crop up on a more regular basis.


What did Spinner, Cameron & Tenenbaum find regarding messages from media?

In television - boys are more aggressive, speak more and are more present.
In books - boys are more active and have a larger range of occupations.
In toys - boys are more heroic, have expertise and have occupational roles (as opposed to girls). Girls are just learning.
Girl-orientated magazines are much more likely to say 'ask an adult for help'.
Girl-orientated magazines have 0% of characters speaking on the front, compared to 56% for boys.
Boy-orientated magazines are much more likely to show occupations.
Male characters in magazines are more likely to show aggression than female characters.