material to know (14-16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in material to know (14-16) Deck (97)
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1

two basic groups of sensation

general senses and special senses

2

general senses

receptors distributed over a large part of the body

3

2 types of general senses

somatic
visceral

4

special senses

specialized in structure, located in specific parts
-smell, taste, sight, hearing, balance

5

sensation

conscious awareness of stimuli

6

3 steps of sensation

-stimulus must be detected by receptors and converted to AP's, sent to CNS
-within CNS- AP's to cerebral cortex and other areas
-AP's translated in cerebral cortex

7

general types of sensory receptors (5)

-mechanoreceptors
-chemoreceptors
-thermoreceptors
-photoreceptors
-nociceptors

8

mechanoreceptors

compression, bending, stretching (touch, pressure, proprioception, hearing, balance)

9

chemoreceptors

smell and taste

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thermoreceptors

temperature

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photoreceptors

vision

12

nociceptors

(pain receptors), painful mechanical, chemical, or thermal stimuli

13

eight major types of sensory nerve endings

-free nerve endings
-Merkel's (tactile) disk
-hair follicle receptor
-Pacinan corpuscle
-Meissner's corpuscle
Ruffini's end organ
-Muscle spindle
-golgi tendon organ

14

free nerve endings

simplest and most common
sense: pain, itch, tickle, temperature, joint movement, proprioception

15

3 types of free nerve ending temperature detection

cold receptors
warm receptors
pain receptors

16

Merkel's (tactile) disk

basal layers of epidermis; light touch, superficial pressure

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hair follicle receptor

light touch (responds to slight bending of the hair)

18

Pacinan corpuscle

resemble an onion, in deep dermis or hypodermis; deep cutaneous pressure, vibration, proprioception

19

Messiner's corpuscle

in dermal papillae; two-point discrimination

20

Ruffini's end organ

dermis of skin, primarily in fingers; continuous touch/ pressure; depression or stretch of the skin

21

Muscle spindle

specialized muscle fibers; proprioception with muscle stretch; controls muscle tone

22

Golgi tendon organ

proprioception with tendon stretch; control of muscle contraction

23

accommodation (adjustment)

decreased sensitivity to continued stimulus

24

Proprioception (2 types)

-tonic receptors
-phasic receptors

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tonic receptors

generate AP's as long as stimulus is applied (accommodate very slowly)

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phasic receptors

accommodate rapidly- most sensitive to changes in stimuli

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sensory (asending) nerve tracts

named according to origin and termination, travel up the spinal cord to the CNS

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sensory (descending) nerve tracts

modify sensation

29

upper motor neurons (control of skeletal muscles)

cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brainstem

30

lower motor neurons (control of skeletal muscles)

cranial nuclei or ventral horn of spinal cord gray matter