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Flashcards in Marketing Research Deck (13)
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Short-run reactions to customer need studies

  • (Re)positioning of existing products
  • adaptation of communications (highly trendy features)
  • adapting easy-to-change product features


Long-run reactions to customer need studies

  • change or adapt company strategy (audi from old people cars to sports cars)
  • new products
  • new business fields
  • change in business models


The steps of the research process 

  1. Defining the problem
  2. Determining the research design
  3. Design the data collection method and form
  4. Designing the sample and collecting data
  5. Analyzing and interpreting data
  6. preparing a research report/thesis/paper


Research design


Research Design:


Typically a small sample, qualitative research. The goal is to generate first insights, deepen the understanding of the problem, clarifying issues from quantitative research. Can be done
with different objectives in mind, depending on what the goal is.


Research Design:


Representative sampling, we infer from the sample onto the population, can be both qualitative and quantitative. The goal is to describe the population as it is, often using a large set
of variables. Characteristics of descriptive research designs are:

  • Research that described but does not directly link outcomes to particular causes
  • Information is typically useful although not causal (70% of people who order our electric newsletter say they occasionally read their emails
  • The majority of empirical data comes from descriptive studies


Rules in descriptive research

  1. Avoid complexity: use simple, audience-specific language if possible
  2. Avoid leading and loaded questions: use neutral questions
  3. Avoid ambiguity: be as specific and precise as possible
  4. Avoid double-barreled questions: ask about one topic at a time
  5. Avoid making assumptions: ask, don’t assume
  6. Avoid burdensome questions: use top-of-mind questions


Research Design:


Manipulation of independent variable in controlled setting. The goal is to measure the causal effect of independent or dependent variables. Usually done with a very restrictive set of variables (max 2-3 with 2-3 levels.) Experiments are used to infer causal relationships (X causes Y). To infer causality, three conditions must be met:

  1. X and Y must occur/vary together
  2. time order: the causing event cannot occur after the effect
  3. absence of other possible factors (no alternative explanation)



Important concepts for experimental research design

  • independent variables (IV): this variable is manipulated in an experiment
  • Dependent variables (DV): this variable is (presumably) affected by the variation of the independent variable (effect)
  • Experimental treatment: action (manipulation) of the IV
  • Extraneous variables (these variables are all variables other than the IV that (possibly) affect the DV
  • Test units/units of analysis: individuals, organizations, or other entities whose response to the independent variable or treatment is being examined
  • Test group: receives the treatment
  • control group: does not receive the treatment


Market Research


Qualitative Market Research

Done to understand what consumers wish and need. Methods include:

  • Focus groups
  • in-depth interviews
  • weak signal research
  • the Delphi method


  • critical incidents (focusing on positiv/negativ service encounters)
  • laddering (based on means-end analysis
  • Brainstorming, collages
  • Associations (Emmi planet, UBS as a person)


Quantitative Market Research

Usually, qualitative research is followed by quantitative research to validate and quantify the findings. Frequently, the goal of quantitative research is to derive the segmentation of consumers.


  • Data collection ( either from internal sources e.g. questionnaires or external e.g. statistics)
  • Data analysis (T-test, ANOVA, regression, factor and cluster analysis)