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Flashcards in Marketing and Finance Deck (32)
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Net Profit and Return on Sales purpose

Measures fundamental profitability of business


Return on sales

- % of sales revenue that gets "returned" to the company as net profits
- Does not account for capital investment used
- Used to compare profitability of companies


Return on Investment (ROI) purpose

- Understand the profitability of single period investments


Problems with ROI

- Only single period
- Averaging profits and investments over periods can disguise profits and assets
- No consideration for opportunity cost and risk


Multi period investments

evaluation of investments that produce returns over multiple periods needs to consider both the magnitude and timing of the returns. Metrics need to deal with economic consequences occurring at different points in time.


Multi period investment metrics

Net present value
Internal rate of return


Time value of money

money available at the present time is worth more than the same amount in the future due to its potential earning capacity.


Cash flow

net amount of cash & cash-equivalents moving into & out of a business.
- Investments, paying debts, expenses are cash outflows
- Earnings are cash inflows
- Positive cash flow indicates that a company's liquid assets (asset that can be converted into cash quickly) are increasing, while negative cash flow indicates that a company's liquid assets are decreasing.


Discount rates/ interest rates

- The discount rate is the rate of return used in a discounted cash flow analysis to determine the present value (PV) of future cash flows.
- Investors use discount rates to translate the value of future investment returns into today's dollars.
- Critical component of the time value of money.
- In terms of net present value calculation, concept is interchangeably used with interest rates; Hurdle rate; Required rate of return; Cost of capital; etc.


Present value

describes how much a future sum of money is worth today.


Net Present Value (NPV) purpose

to evaluate multi-period investments taking into account the time value of money and the risk involved


Net Present Value (NPV)

the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows that occur as a result of undertaking an investment project. It may be positive, zero or negative.


If Present value of cash inflow > present value of cash outflow

NPV is positive and the project is acceptable


If Present value of cash inflow = present value of cash outflow

NPV is zero and the project is acceptable


If Present value of cash inflow < present value of cash outflow

NPV is negative and project is not acceptable


What do NPV calculations reflect?

the time value of money by "discounting" (i.e. reducing) the value of future cash flows. In effect, cash flows received earlier in an investment project are considered to be worth more than those who are expected several years ahead.


What percentage (or "rate") should be used to discount future cash flows?

- Consider using the interest rate which could be obtained on saving.
- A more common approach is to consider what the required rate of return is for shareholders - this takes into account the risk they perceive when investing in the business.
- Typically, the discount rate is decided at the corporate level.


NPV Problems

Reliability of future cash flow projections
What should be the basis of the discount rate used?
Cost of capital? Adjusted for risk?
Opportunity cost (investment alternatives with similar risk)?
Hurdle rate, target rate of return?


Present value or profitability index

Choosing among several alternative investment proposals:
• Sometime a company may have limited funds but several alternative proposals. In such circumstances, if each alternative requires the same amount of investment, the one with the highest net present value is preferred.
• But if each proposal requires a different amount of investment, then proposals are ranked using an index called present value index (or profitability index). The proposal with the highest present value index is considered the best.


Internal Rate of Return

- The discount rate for which the net present value of the investment is zero
- IRR uses the initial cost of the project and estimates of the future cash flows to figure out the interest rate.
- IRR should be higher than the cost of funds.
- IRR requires you to find a rate instead of a value.


Difference between IRR and NPV

- Both are discounted cash flow techniques for evaluating investments over multiple periods
- NPV formula solves for the present value of a stream of cash flows, given a discount rate. IRR on the other hand, solves for a rate of return when setting the NPV equal to zero (0).


IRR Construction considerations

- Using the NPV method, you can figure out internal rate of return through trial and error — plug different interest rates into your formulas until you figure out which interest rate delivers an NPV closest to zero
- In general, companies should accept projects with IRR that exceeds the cost of capital and reject projects that don’t meet that guideline. This can be compared to the company’s “hurdle rate” (a rate under which they would not undertake a project).
- Decision rule: If IRR is above the hurdle rate--> proceed with project, if IRR is below hurdle rate --> do not proceed


IRR Calculation

- The manual calculation of IRR using present value tables is challenging. One would repeatedly try rates until the rate that caused the present value of cash inflows to equal the present value of cash outflows is isolated.
- Computing internal rate of return may require estimating the NPV for several different interest rates and judging which rate results in the lowest NPV.
- Excel offers powerful functions for computing internal return of return, as do many financial calculators.


IRR Challenges

- Multiple solutions and the difficulty of solving n-factor equations
- With some cash flows, IRR is positive (despite negative cashflows)
- IRR sometimes ignores the magnitude of the project


Payback purpose

Evaluate investments over multiple periods



Number of years it takes before the cumulative forecast cash flow equals the initial outlay


Payback decision rule

Only accept projects that "pay back" in the desired time frame


Payback problems

it ignores later year cash flows and the present value of future cash flows


Return on marketing investment purpose

- To measure the rate at which spending on marketing contributes to profits


ROMI is generally not a good metric for?

- Awareness or image/brand building advertising
- PR campaigns
- Other elements of the marketing/ marketing communications mix not tasked with a direct sales
- Radical product innovations