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Flashcards in Marius the Reformer Deck (14)
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1

Aftermath of Gaius Gracchus

His reforms remained on place
Agrarian laws - first change allowed sale of allotments
111 BCE Lex Thoria
Opimius is tried and found guilty of murdering Gaius which strengthened the precedent for the use of senatus consultum

2

Populares

Those following the Gracchi in appealing to the people rather than working through the senate.

3

Optimates

'best men' who believed in working through the senate and in gaining power through traditional methods such as family alliance and patronage

4

Tension after the Gracchi...

Caecilli Metelli and their clients repeatedly gain senior magistrates. 123-109 bce Metelli held 6 consulships and 2 by his son-in-law.
He began patronizing new men and their careers

5

Jugurthine War 112-105 bce

Numidian king divides up his kingdom between his three sons. Jugurtha overpowers and kills Italians in Africa. Senate declares war due to equestrian pressure.

6

Gaius Marius

Born in 157 in Arpinum, well off equestrian family, novus homo, support of the Caecilli Metelli, good soldier, tribune of the plebs 119 BCE.

7

Sallust, War against Jugurtha - Marius election as consul

"humble origins added to his popularity"

8

Cimbrian Wars 113-101

Massive migration of Cimbri and Teutones south
Rome sent aid
109 - M. Junius Silanus defeated in Gallia Narbonesis
107 - L. Cassius Longinus defeated at Burdigala
105 - Cn. Mallius Maximus and Servilius Caepio defeated at Arausio
Rome looks for new commander - MARIUS!

9

The Post-Marian Professional legion

No property qualification
Land for veterans
State supplied equipment
No cavalry or light infantry
But, this created later problems...

10

L. Appuleius Saturninus

Quaestor in 104 BCE, tribune in 103 and 100. He passes a law to give African land to Marius' veterans from Jugurthine War.
He also passes a law on magestas, allows exile of incompetent and corrupt generals

11

Servilius Glaucia

tribune in 101
He passed a lex repetundarum restoring court to equites. He oversaw tribunate elections for 100. Praetor in 100.

12

Consul and tribune 100 BCE

Marius returns from Cimbrian wars victorious; he is elected for consul. He turns to Saturninus and Glaucia to help him pass legislation.

13

100 BCE - CALAMITY

Saturninus elected tribune for 99 bce
Glaucia stands for consulship
Senate demands that Marius acts so he traps them; they surrender. Then the senatorial mob stones them to death with roof tiles.

14

Marius' legacy

He was a novus homo and a general - military route to power
Reform of the army
land for veterans
Use and abuse of tribunes
violence in politics