Marine Organisms, Ocean Layers, and Surface Currents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Marine Organisms, Ocean Layers, and Surface Currents Deck (42)
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1

What are the three broad categories of creatures that live in the ocean?

Pelagic organisms
Benthic organisms
Planktonic organisms

2

What are pelagic organisms?

any organisms that can move by its own locomotion

3

pelagic organisms are mostly things with...

fins

4

Where do Pelagic organisms live?

in the uppermost waters of the ocean

5

What are some examples of Benthic organisms?

Sponges, anemones,

6

benthic organisms attach themselves to ocean ______ on the ocean floor

sediment

7

Where do benthic organisms live?

on the ocean floor (bottom sediments) but still in waters shallow enough to receive sunlight.

8

Planktonic organisms are anything that _____ or _____ along with ocean currents

floats, drifts

9

Almost all the organisms of the ocean live in the _____ zone

photic

10

What is the photic zone?

the upper 200 meters of the ocean where there is enough light for photosynthesis to occur

11

The photic zone is the upper _____ meters of the ocean.

200

12

in the photic zone there is enough light for _________ to occur

photosynthesis

13

what is the photic zone defined by?

how much sunlight gets/passes through

14

what are four zones of the ocean?

photic zone
surface layer
transitional zone
deep zone

15

How are the zones of the ocean defined?

by density and temperature

16

the zones of the ocean are defined by ______ and _____

density, temperature

17

Which layer comprises the first 100 meters of the ocean?

the surface layer

18

the surface layer is characterized by _____ and _____ density water

warm, low

19

the transitional zone stretches form _____ to _____ meters

100-1500

20

In which zone does the temperature of the water decrease and the density increase?

the transitional zone

21

In the transitional zone, the temperature of the water _____ and the density ______

decreases, increases.

22

The deep zone is...

very dense and very cold

23

what is the deep zone composed of?

calcareous/ siliceous ooze, or red clay

24

What is the average temperature in this zone?

36 F

25

surface ocean currents are the way that the water _______ near the ______

circulates, surface

26

Most surface ocean currents form in response to _____ and ____ variations

wind, temperature

27

Surface ocean currents an be modified by the ______ effect

Coriolis

28

Briefly, what causes the Coriolis effect?

the rotation of the Earth.

29

what are teleconnection?

anomalies that occur in the surface circulation currents

30

What are three teleconnections?

- El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
- Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
- North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)