Maegan's Test #4 - Circulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Maegan's Test #4 - Circulation Deck (102)
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1

What is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US?

Cardiovascular Disease

2

There are often other diseases that co-exist with cardiovascular disease, What are a few examples?

Diabetes

Mellitus

Obesity

Hyperlipidemia

Tobacco and/or alcohol abuse

3

What is the amount of force exerted on the arterial walls by the blood flowing within the vessels?

Blood Pressure

4

What are the normal ranges for Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure?

Systolic 100-120 mmHg

Diastolic 60-80 mmHg

5

What are the components of Blood Pressure?

Pump
(Heart Rate and Force of Contraction)

Fluid Volume

Vascular Bed

6

The ULTIMATE GOAL of Blood Pressure is that it adjusts to maintain _______ Perfusion.

Blood Pressure is adjusted to maintain TISSUE Perfusion

7

What is the amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in 1 minute?

Cardiac Output

8

How do you Calculate Cardiac output?

Heart Rate X Stroke Volume (~70mL for healthy adult)

9

The Venus pressure is ____ _____ to adequately return blood to the heart.

The Venus pressure is TOO LOW to adequately return blood to the heart.

10

What are some of the Assistive mechanisms that help the Venous return?

Respiratory Pump
(Draws blood toward heart with deep breath)

Muscular Pump
(Pushes blood toward heart)

Venous Valves
(Prevents backward flow of blood)

11

What are the three types of Diseases/Disorders of the Cardiovascular system?

Congenital (Born with) VS Acquired

Structural VS Functional

Acute VS Chronic

12

What is the primary problem with a cardiovascular disease?

Impaired Tissue Perfusion

13

What are 3 risk factors for cardiovascular disease?

Heredity
(At higher risk if it runs in the family)

Age
(As you get older you are at higher risk)

Gender
(Before menopause men are at higher risk, After Menopause it evens itself out)

14

What are some of the Modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease? (Things that can be changed by client)

Elevated Lipid Levels

Hypertension

Cigarette Smoking

Diabetes Mellitus
(High Levels of Glucose damages blood vessels)

Obesity
(Not just the volume of weight but where they carry that weight-Apple shaped at higher risk than Pear)

Waist Circumference

Sedentary Lifestyle

15

What are some Lab tests you would do to check for cardiovascular problems? (3 tests)

Lipid & cholesterol Levels Homocysteine Levels

16

What are some cardiovascular focused assessments you would do?

Level of Consciousness (LOC) Orientation Skin Color, temp, moisture & turgor P,R, BP (Do both arms within 10 mmHg) Apical Pulse (Just know rate/Rhythm) Heart Sounds (Rhythm & if murmur) Peripheral Pulse (Do both at same time and know presence, rate, rhythm, strength and equality) (0-No Pulse 1-Weak 2-Normal 3-Bounding) Edema Tilt test (Test for Orthostatic hypertension)

17

When performing a tilt test, what would change in blood pressure and pulse to provide a positive tilt test result?

Blood Pressure Systolic- decrease 20mm Dystolic- decrease 10mm Pulse Increase by 15-30 bpm

18

What are some nursing problems/diagnosis for decreased cardiac output?

Decreased heart rate or force of contraction Increased heart rate (>150) Decreased fluid volume or hemorrhage Arrhythmias Incompetent valves Myocardial Ischemia (heart not getting enough oxygen)

19

What is the main Nursing Goal for decreased cardiac output?

Maintain & restore cardiac output

20

What is the main goal for tissue perfusion?

Maintain or Improve tissue perfusion

21

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport ____________ & _____________ to tissues

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport OXYGEN & NUTRIENTS to tissues

22

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport ______ ______ & ______ _______ from tissues for elimination

 

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport WASTE PRODUCTS & CARBON DIOXIDE from tissues for elimination

23

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport _________ & _____________ to target organs.

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport HORMONES & MEDICATIONS to target organs.

24

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport ______ ________ _______ & ____________ to points of inflammation or infection.

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport WHITE BLOOD CELLS & ANTIBODIES to points of inflammation or infection.

25

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport _____________ & __________ _____________ to points of injury.

The purpose of the purpose of the Cardiovascular system when talking about transportation are to....

Transport PLATLETS& CLOTTING FACTORS to points of injury

26

The Cardiovascular system is responsible for regulating what items? (There are 3)

Body Temperature

pH (Regulates this)

Fluid & Electrolyte status
(Filtering through Kidney & Producing urine)

27

What is the electrical & mechanical activity that results in one heartbeat?

Cardiac Cycle

28

There are two phases to the cardiac cycle, what are they?

Contraction
(Systole - Blood ejected from heart)

Relaxation
(Diastole - Ventribles refil with blood)
 

29

What is it when the atria contract at end of diastole, adding additional volume to the ventricles?

Atrial Kick

30

Cardiac Output is adjusted to meet tissue needs, by adjusting your heart rate & the force of contraction. What are the two effects for those?

Chronotropic Effect
Increace Heart Rate

Inotropic Effect
Increase in how hard it thumps