What are the 11 Parts to the Anatomy of Bowel Elimination?
1. Small Intestine
2. Large Intestine
Absorbs nutrients & _______
Absorbs nutrients & WATER
What does the Colon/Large Intestine Reabsorb?
What is the term for the bowel moving through the intestine?
(Moving Content Forward)
What is the purpose of the Mucoid (Mucous) Protection?
To protect from stomach acid and hold feces together.
If you get a disease in the intestine's, there might be a problem doing what?
When waste products are in the lower GI for extended period of time what happens?
More Water is removed
Hard, Dry Stools
What are the characteristics of NORMAL feces?
Brown in Color
Have fecal odor from normal flora (Bacteria)
Small amounts of fat
Soft and formed
How many times a day/week is considered
Several Times a Day
2-3 Times Per Week
(Remember, Norms are different for everyone, Look for variation in their NORMS)
What can Cause BLACK TARRY STOOLS?
Upper GI Bleed
Increase in Iron
What causes Hard, dry stools?
What can cause watery stools?
What would cause Ribbon-Like, Narrowed Stools?
Obstruction of Rectum
What can cause pieces of undigested food in stool?
What can cause shreds of mucous?
What is large amounts of fat in stools called?
What is the definition of Constipation?
Hard, infrequent stools that may be painful
What are some causes of constipation?
Lack of fiber
Lack of adequate water intake
Poor habits - no regularity, no time, avoiding urge
Overuse/Dependent on laxatives
Medications - Narcotics, antacids, statins, iron, Anticholinergic
Neurological - Stroke (CVA) Spinal Cord Damage
Certain Foods - Cheese, Eggs, Milk
What causes Hemorrhoids (Enlarged Vein)?
What are anal fissures?
Tear in lining of anus
What is Fecal Impation?
Large or hard fecal mass
Results from Prolonged retention and accumulation of fecal material. (Poor defecation habit)
Will Experience the passage of liquid fecal seepage (Diarrhea) and no normal stool.
What are some Constipation Interventions?
Increase fluid to 2000-3000ml/Day if not contraindicated
Offer warm fluids especially after breakfast (Increases Parastolosis)
Avoid highly refined foods like fast food, sweetners & Flours
LAST RESORT - Laxatives
What is gas or air in colon passed through the anal canal called?
What can cause Flatus?
Action of bacteria on chyme
Gas forming foods- IE Cabbage, Onion
(Usually absorbed into the bloodstream)
What are some Flatus Interventions?
Avoid Gas-producing foods
Provide low fat meals
Warm blanket or pad to abdomen (Increases blood flow)
Correct positioning for meals
Obtain order for rectal tube
Avoid chewing gum or drinking with a straw
What is liquid, unformed stools with increased frequency of defication?
What is a result of Diarrhea?
Serious Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
Especially in Very young and older adults
What are some causes of Diarrhea?
Medication Side Effects
Drug or Food Allergies
Digestive Diseases (Crohn's)
What are some Diarrhea Interventions?
Provide liquid diet and advance as tolerated
(Allow bowel to rest andn Rehydrate them)
Monitor and Record amount, Consistency, and Frequency of stools, monitor skin for breakdown, and monitor for dehydration
Give meds as appropriate including PRN anal ointments/barriers & antidiarrheals
Teach to avoid ETOH(Alcohol) and Caffeine if chronic
What are Fecal Impaction Interventions?
Manual Rectal Exam PRN
Assess Abdominal Distention
Enemas as Ordered