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Nursing 5: Test 1 Cancer > Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (24)
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Lung Cancer
-Statistics

1. Leading cause of cancer death in US
2. All races affected equally

1

Lung Cancer
-Risk Factors

1. Age >50 yrs
2. Genetics
3. Cigarette smoking tied to LC 80% of the time
4. Exposure to ionizing radiation and inhaled irritants (asbestos)
5. Radon (accumulates in closed spaces)

2

Lung Cancer
-Primary Goal

1. Prevention of the disease must be a primary goal for all health care providers

3

Lung Cancer
-Diagnostics

1. Chest X-ray
2. Sputum Specimen
3. Bronchoscopy
4. CT
5. CBC, LFT's TB, Pulmonary function tests & ABG's

4

Lung Cancer
-Arise from Where?

1. Bronchogenic carcinomas account for 90% of primary lung cancers

5

Lung Cancer Cell Types
-Small-cell (Oat Cell) Carcinoma

1. 20-25% of all lung cancers
2. Central lesion w/ hilar mass common
-SIADH, Cushing's syndrome, thrombophlebitis
3. Aggressive Tumor
-Greater than 40% of clients have distant metastasis at time of presentation

6

Lung Cancer Cell Types
-Adenocarcinoma

1. 20-40% of all lung cancers
2. Peripheral mass involving bronchi
-few local symptoms
-hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy
3. Early metastasis to CNS, skeleton, and adrenal glands

7

Lung Cancer Cell Types
-Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1. 30-32% of all lung cancers
2. Central lesion located in large bronchi
-client presents w/ cough, dyspnea, atelectasis, and wheezing
-hypercalcemia common
3. Spreads by local invasion

8

Lung Cancer Cell Types
-Large-Cell Carcinoma

1. 10-15% of all lung cancers
2. Usually peripheral lesion that is larger than associated w/ adenocarcinoma
-Tends to cavitate; gynecomastia, thrombophlebetis
3. Early Metastasis

9

Lung Cancer
-Primary Choice for Treatment

1. Chemotherapy

10

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

1. Complication of lung cancer
2. Results from pressure placed on the vena cava by a tumor
3. It is a Medical Emergency

11

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
-Early Signs

1. Edema in the face & neck and peripherally
2. Nosebleeds
3. Dyspnea

12

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
-Late Signs

1. Mental status changes
2. Cyanosis
3. Hemorrhage
4. Hypotension

13

Multi-system Effects of Lung Cancer
-Respiratory

1. Cough
2. Hemoptysis
3. Wheezing and dyspnea
4. Chest pain, dull or pleuritic
5. Hoarseness and dysphagia
6. Pleural Effusion

14

Multi-system Effects of Lung Cancer
-Cardiovascular

1. Compression of the superior vena cava

15

Multi-system Effects of Lung Cancer
-GI

1. Anorexia

16

Multi-system Effects of Lung Cancer
-Endocrine

1. Hypercalcemia
2. Hyperphosphatemia
3. Cushing's syndrome
4. SIADH
-W/ water retention and hyponatremia

17

Small Cell Lung Cancer
-Treatment of Choice

1. Combination chemotherapy is treatment of choice for small-cell cancer because of its rapid growth

18

Lung Cancer
-Nursing Dx

1. Ineffective Breathing Pattern
2. Activity Intoerance
3. Pain
4. Anticipatory Grieving

19

Lung Cancer
-Ineffective Breathing Pattern

1. Assess & document RR, depth, lung sounds q4
2. Frequently assess pain and provide analgesics
3. Elevate head of bead above 60 degrees
4. Turn, cough, deep breath
5. Suction airways as needed and provide chest percussion and postural drainage

20

Lung Cancer
-Activity Intolerance

1. Plan rest periods between activities
2. Teach measures to conserve energy while performing ADL's
3. Keep frequently used objects w/in reach
4. Administer O2 as prescribed

21

Lung Cancer
-Pain

1. Assess and document using standardized pain scale
2. Provide analgesics
3. For cancer pain, maintain around the clock pain mgmt schedule
4. Provide and assist w/ comfort measures

22

Lung Cancer
-Anticipatory Grieving

1. Spend time w/ client and family
2. Answer questions honestly
3. Encourage client and family to express feelings
4. Help identify strengths and coping measures

23

Lung Cancer
-Interdisciplinary Care

1. Respiratory Therapy
2. Radiology
3. Nutritional services
4. Rehabilitation
5. Hospice