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Flashcards in Lower Extremity Deck (136)
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1

What are some questions to ask during history taking of the LE?

Muscle or joint pain?
Reduced range of motion?
Muscle weakness?
Any joint redness/swelling?
Numbness or tingling?
Concern for peripheral vascular disease?

2

What is ligamentum teres?

Ligament to the head of the femur that carries artery to the head of the femur.

3

Anterior knee tendons:

Quadriceps tendon – sup. to pat.
Patellar tendon – inf. to pat.

4

Medial knee tendons:

Pes Anserinus – 3 tend.; tibial slope
Semi-membranosis & -tendinosis

5

Posterior knee tendons:

Med & Lat hds of gastroc

6

Lateral knee tendons:

ITB – at Gurdy’s tub.
Biceps femoris – fib hd

7

Shape of the medial meniscus.

C-shaped.

8

Shape of the lateral meniscus.

O-shaped.

9

ACL:

Function: stops anterior translation of tibia on femur
Orientation of fibers:
Anterior medial bundle
Posterior lateral bundle
MOI:
Hyperextension
Rotation w change of direction
Jump stop w/wt posterior
Intercondylar notch

10

ACL surgeries:

Difficult to mimic fiber orientation
Gold standard: BPTB graft
Hamstring graft
Achilles’ tendon graft
Allograft (cadaver BPTB) versus autograft (yours)

11

PCL:

Function – stops posterior translation of tibia on femur
MOI – falling forward on bent knee; direct blow to ant. tibia w/ ft not fixed
Surgery – rare, even with 3˚ tear

12

MCL knee:

Commonly injured
MOI – valgus force
Surgery – maybe w/3˚

13

LCL knee:

Less commonly injured.
MOI: varum force.
Surgery: super rare.

14

Ankle Syndesmosis injury:

Ankle injury
Btwn tibia & fibula
Ant/post tibiofibular ligaments.

15

Talocrural joint:

Ankle.
Btwn tibia & talus
modified hinge
closed-packed=dorsiflexion
resting is 10°

16

Subtalar joint:

Ankle joint.
Btwn talus & calcaneous
synovial joint
Get chondral defects here at times

17

List the three arches of the foot.

Longitudinal arch:
Area of plantar fascia.
Transverse arch:
Under ball of foot.
Lateral arch:
Btwn head of 5th and calcaneous.

18

Spine Examination Inspection.

Ask patient to stand up with his/her back toward you.
Note patient’s posture with his/her feet together & arms at sides.
Is head erect?
Are shoulders & pelvis level?
Inspect from the side.
Evaluate spinal curvature.
Assess cervical & lumbar concavity & thoracic convexity.

19

What is valgum?

Inward rotation.

20

What is varum?

Outward rotation.

21

Where is the SI joint?

45 degrees from the iliac crest at L4.

22

ROM of the spine (thoracic & lumbar)

Flexion (Look for scoliosis)
Extension
Lateral bending
Rotation – in seated position

23

Describe flexion of the spine.

Bend forward & touch toes.
Evaluate for scoliosis.
May palpate along the spinous processes during this maneuver.

24

Describe extension of the spine.

Stabilize the patient.
Bend backwards.

25

Describe lateral bending of the spine.

Stabilize the patient.
Lean to each side as far as possible.
“Like you’re picking up a suitcase”

26

Describe rotation of the spine.

Should be seated.
Stabilize the patient.
Rotate the trunk posteriorly.

27

Describe female athlete triad.

Poor nutrition.
Amenorrhea.
Osteoporosis.

28

Describe amenorrhea.

Females don't have their first period till after 16 years old.

29

What is dowager's hump?

Informal term for kyphosis.

30

Scoliosis evaluation.

Inspect from several angles and with patient bending forward.
“Dextroscoliosis” – curve is convex (toward) the right.
“Levoscoliosis” - curve is convex (toward) to the left.
May see falsely apparent leg length “discrepancy”, with “shortening” on the concave side.