Logical Fallacies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (26)
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1

Straw man

Refuting a statement by intentionally misrepresenting it

2

Slippery slope

Arguing that one step will surely lead to many others with catastrophic results

3

Special pleading

Applying some standards and rules to other people, while not applying them to yourself

4

Gamblers fallacy

If something has happened very frequently in the past, and it is assumed it will happen less frequently in the future

5

Black or white

Presenting two alternatives as the only possibilities, when more exist in between

6

False cause

Believing that a presumed or real relationship between two things is the cause of the other

7

Ad hominem

Attacking someone personally instead of their argument

8

Loaded question

Asking a question in such a way that assures one’s opponent appears guilty

9

Bandwagon

Assuming that the opinion of the majority is always valid

10

Begging the question

When an arguments premise assumes the truth of the conclusion instead of supporting it

11

Appeal to authority

Claiming that something is true because it is believed it promoted by someone “of authority”

12

Appeal to nature

Assuming something is good because it is “natural” or found in nature

13

Fallacy of composition

Believing that something is true for the whole because it is true for one part of something

14

Anecdote

Using a personal experience or isolated incident instead of facts and a solid argument

15

False analogy

Using and inappropriate or misleading compassion to prove a point

16

Appeal to emotion

Attempting to manipulate one’s opponent by eliciting an emotional response

17

Tu quoque

Trying to discredit an argument by pointing out that the opponent has not been totally consistent with their beliefs in the past

18

Burden of proof

Making a claim that needs justification and then demanding that the opponent justifies the opposite of the claim

19

No true Scotsman

Rendering an argument unfalsifiable because no matter how compelling the evidence is one simply shifts the goalpost so that it wouldn’t apply to a supposedly true example

20

The Texas sharpshooter

Occurs when the differences in data are ignored but the similarities are stressed

21

The fallacy-fallacy

Presuming that because the argument was poorly argued, the entirety of it must be wrong

22

Personal incredulity

Presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued or because the arguer doesn’t have much personal credibility the entire argument must be wrong

23

Circular reasoning

When the arguer begins an argument with their concluding point

24

Genetic fallacy

Disputing a fact based on someone or something’s history, origin or source rather than its current meaning or context

25

Middle ground

Asserts that the truth is essentially found in the middle of two arguments

26

Non-sequitur

A conclusion that is not aligned with previous statements or evidence