locomotion Flashcards Preview

human physiology > locomotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in locomotion Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is movement and locomotion

movement and displacement

2

how does movement help us

1. to maintain equilibrium of body
2.capture food
3.ingestion,defence and locomotion
4.peristalsis
5.pumping of heart

3

types of movements

1.amoeboid/psuedopodial: due to the streaming of protoplasm
seen in amoeba,macrophages, wbc,microfilaments
2.cillary movements: surface of cells have small hair like structures. have an oar like movement creating a current
seen in repro(oviduct) and respiratory tracts and paramoecium
3. flagellate: flagella for locomotion as in perm and protozoa
4.muscular
5.proctosomes(tentacles) in hydra

4

how does locomotion help us

to get food
finding shelter
mating
protection from predators
migration

5

where is muscle from

specialied tissue fromthe germ layer mesoderm

6

cells that make muscle

myocytes

7

no. of muscles in human body

639

8

unique properties of muscles

contractibility,excitability,extensibility and elasticity

9

weight of muscles

40-50%of human body weight

10

biggest muscle in the body

gluteus maximus in the butt

11

smallest muscle in the body

stapedius in the middle ear
thinner than a cotton thread

12

muscle is covered by a sheath of connective tissue

epimysium
protects from friction

13

inside the epimysium, a muscle has many muscle fibres arranged in a bundle called

fasciculi

14

what is fasciculi surrounded by

perimysium

15

the muscle fibres in the fasciculi

parallel to eachother and the the muscle fibres in the fasciculi are surrounded by endomyseium

16

what are muscle bundles bound together by

fascia, it lies above and covers the epimysium

17

what is tendon

inelastic connective tissue
joins bone to muscle

18

types of muscles

1. skeletal/striped/voluntary
2. visceral/smooth/involuntary
3. cardiac

19

striated muscles(14)

cylindrical
blunt ends
unbranched
occur in bundles
good blood supply
voluntary
get impulses from cranial and spinal nerves
intercalated disc absent
multinucleated
a good number of mitochondria
abundant myoglobin
deep striation
quick contraction
easily get fatigued

in hindlimbs,forelimbs,bodywall, tongue, pharynx, upper oesophagus

20

smooth muscles (14)

these are spindle shaped
tapering ends
unbranched
occur single,in sheets and small bundles
poor blood supply
involuntary
controlled by autonomic nervous system
intercalcated disc absent
uni nucleated
few mitochondria
poor myoglobin
no stripes
slow contractions
no fatigue

NOT ORGANISED PARALLELY they are present in organs

21

cardiac muscles(14)

cylindrical
blunt ends
branched fibres
3d network
rich in blood supply
involuntary
under autonomic nervous system
intercalcated discs present
uni nucleated
mitochondria are abundant
abundant myoglobin
faint stripes
rhythamic contractions
never fatigue

only in heart, they are autogenic and myogenic

22

busiest muscle

eye

23

number of muscles to smile

17

24

muscles in the root hairs

goose bumps

25

anatomical unit of muscle

muscle fibre

26

what is muscle fibre covered by

sarcolemma( a plasma membrane)

27

what does the sarcolemma enclose

sarcoplasm which contains many nuclei

28

what do the muscle fibres contain

parallely arranged myofibrils
alternate dark and light bands

29

what are formed over the myofibrils

t tubules/transverse tubules

30

what is a myofibril made up of

2 types of myofilaments
thick myofilament(myosin)
thin myofilament (actin)