Local Anaesthetics Flashcards Preview

Veterinary Nursing Anaesthesia and Analgesia > Local Anaesthetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Local Anaesthetics Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1

What does an adjunctive multimodal analgesic approach mean?

It may be given combined with general anaesthesia

2

True or false:
Local anaesthesia can be used soley or combined with general anaesthesia

True

3

Why are local anaesthetics used?

- Targeted analgesia
- High risk patients where GA not apt
- Part of multi-modal analgesia approach intra-op
- Pre-emptive analgesia
- Widely used in equine and farm animal practice
- Reduce dose of other drugs

4

How do Local Anaesthetics work?

- completely block transmission of pain impulses
-block sodium channels at nerve endings
- Sensory neurons more sensitive
- Tehcnically they produce local analgesia

5

In what order do sensations disappear?

- pain
- cold
- warmth
- touch
- pressure

6

Name the 5 methods of administration

- local infiltration (injection)
- Regional analgesia
- Spinal
- Trans-mucosal
- Trans-cutaneous

7

Name 4 kinds of local anaesthetics

- Emla cream
- Lidocaine (Spray for intubation)
- Splash block
- Intra-testicular
- Eyedrops
-Equine medicine and farm animal medication

8

what are the two kinds of subcutaneous infiltration

ring or line block

9

What kind of local anaesthetic is EMLA

Topical

10

Name 3 drug examples

Lignocaine (+/- adrenaline)
Bupivacaine
Lidocaine
Benzocaine
Tetracaine
Amethocaine
Mepivicaine

11

If used correctly will local anaesthetic give sedative effects?

Only minimal effects

12

Where are local anaesthetics inactivated

The liver - therefore look at a different dose or consider different drug if patient has liver disease

13

How does regional anaesthesia work, who can administer this form of anaesthesia, and name a technique.

Injection into major nerve plexus / close to spinal cord and causes blockage of a relatively large area
Can only be administered by VS
Example: Epidural

14

How is spinal anaesthesia administered

Intra-thecal
Drugs injected into subarachanoid space where they mix with CSF

15

Name 3 forms of topical anaesthesia

Eyes - corneal Drugs: proxymetacaine, amethocaine

Skin: EMLA Drugs: lidocaine and prilocaine

Larynx: Lignocaine spray

Lignocaine gel for urinary catheterisation

16

name 4 risks of local anaesthetics

- May cause nerve damage or permanent loss of function when injected into nerve fibers
- Some local anaesthesia can cause tissue irritation
- Animals may chew the area following recovery (paraesthesia)
- Occasional allergic reactions
- Hypotension may occur especially after epidural anaesthesia
- Systemic toxicity of local anaesthetics
- Depends on rate of uptake / metabolism of drugs
- CNS stimulation may lead to siezures,
- Higher dose may lead to depression which could cause respiratory failure
- Heart contraction force decreases = myocardial depression
- Cats and exotics are very sensitive
- Danger of not calculating total dose given

17

What two local anaesthetics are present in EMLA cream

lidocaine and prilocaine

18

what local anaesthetic is present in larynx spray

lignocaine

19

Which local anaesthetic can be combined with adrenaline

Lignocaine

20

Which local anaesthetic can have anti-arrhythmic effects

Lidocaine