What are predictors of a child's successful adjustment to chronic illness?
- Severity of the illness (especially in f(x) impairment
- Better psychological outcomes when children are given accurate and developmentally appropriate information about their illness.
Patterns of substance use found in a 2013 study regatrding youth ages 12-17
- 8.8% reported using an illicit drug in the past month
- 11.6% reported using alcohol
What do surveys of older adults show regarding the primary reason for lack of sexual activity?
Physical health problems in men.
Changes in sensory and psychomotor functioning in aging: general
- Behavioral slowing- adversely affects performance on a variety of tasks
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget's Constructivism is:
- Humans construct higher knowledge by taking bricks from both biology and environment
- Motivation for knowledge comes from a drive towards equilibrium, brought on by descrepancy between ones understanding of the world and reality
- This descrepancy is resolved through ADAPTATION, which describes 2 processes: Assimilation and Accommodation.
Adaptation process according to Piaget (2 complimentary processes)
- the encorporation of new knowledge into existing cognitive schemas
- the modification of existing schemas to incorporate new knowledge
Piaget's 4 Stages of Development
- Sensorimotor (B-2 years)
- Pre-operational (2-7 years)
- Concrete operational (7-11/12)
- Formal operational (11 or 12 +)
Desribe Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage
- child learns through sensory information provided by objects and other people and the acts that can be performed upon them
- Symbolic Thought
- Object Permanence
- Deferred Imitation
- Make-believe play
Desribe Piaget's Pre-operational Stage
- Ages 2-7
Characterized by some limitations, such as:
- Precausal reasoning (underlies Magical Thinking)
- Animism; the tendency to attribute human characteristics to inanimate objects
Describe Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage
- (7-11/12 years old)
- capable of CONSERVATION Ugh
- which depends on the operations of reversability and decentration.
- Treat objects as things (ie. dolls as babies)
- the gradual acquisition of conservation is
Describe Piaget's Formal Operational Stage
- 11/12 years old +
- Beginning of this stage involves renewed EGOCENTRISM, which results in the phenomenons of Personal Fable and Imaginary Audience
- Abstract thinking ability
- Hypothetical deductive reasoning
(Elkind's) 2 Phenomenon that are a result in Renewed Egocentrism of beginning of Piaget's Formal Operational Stage 11/12 years old +
- Personal Fable
- belief that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others
- Imaginary Audience
- belief that one is always the center of attention
Information-Processing theories of Development
- In contrast to Piagetians, development is viewed as taking place in specific cognitive domains.
- IE: Vygotsky's Sociocultural theory
Desribe Vygotsky's SocioCultural Theory (an IPT)
- an Information-Processing Theory
- emphasizes role of Society and Culture factors
- Importance of Zone of Proximal Development
What does the Zone of Proximal Development describe, and who is the theorist?
- Refers to the descrepancy between a child's current developmental level and the elve that they can reach with an adult or older peer's help---> SCAFFOLDING
The ability of adults to have better recall of events that occurred between the ages of 10 and 30
Describe important points of Memory Development
- Until age 9-10, children do not use memory strategies such as rehearsal or elaboration
- Improvements on cognitive tasks that occur as children grow are partially due to METACOGNITION -or
Thinking about Thinking
- Among older adults, Recent Long Term (RLT) memory shows the greates age-related decline
- probably due to problemns with the use of CODING STRATEGIES
The 3 primary approaches to Language Development
- Nativist (CHOMSKY)
- language acquisition attriburted to biological mechanisms
- stresses universal patterns of language development
Describe the Nativist approach to Language Development
- attributes language acquisition to biology
- Chomsky proposed the existence of an innate LAD
(Language Acquisition Device) that makes it possible for people to acquire language after being exposed to it
Describe the Interactionist approach to language acquisition
- View that a combination of biological and environmental factors contribute to language development
refers to a child's use of their knowledge of the meaning of words to infer their grammatical structure.
What are the 2 types of speech sounds?
-smallest unit of sound understood in a human language
-smallest unit of sound that conveys meaning
3 Crying Patterns of Babies
Describe language development in an infant
- 3-4 months: babbling
- 9-14 months: sounds narrowed down to those of own language
- 1-2 years: Holophrastic speech- 1-word to describe whole sentences or phrases
- 18-24 months: Telegraphic speech- 2+ words together to make a sentence
2 types of errors that take place during language development
- word applied to narrowly (only use word "dish" for their own special dish
-word applied too widely (dog for horse or other 4-legged animal)
Describe some gender differences in language
- Males talk for longer intervals and are more likely to interrupt
- Females more likely to ask questions
Describe some research results found regarding about bilingual education
- learning a second language is best when it begins in childhood
- Language-minority children who participate in high-quality programs do as well or better than those who participate in English-only programs.
Epigenesis - GOTTLIEB
Describes evolutionary changes and individual development
Recent data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics indicate that the preterm birthrate is highest for __________ mothers.
Non-hispanic African American mothers
Volitional Auditory Localizatio begins at about what age in babies?