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Flashcards in Lifespan Deck (170)
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151

Studies examining language acquisition in children have shown that the fastest rate of increase in vocabulary typically occurs between the ages of:

The fastest rate of vocabulary increase occurs between the ages of 30 and 36 months. During this period, the child's vocabulary increases from 300-400 words to about 1000 words.

Note: Between the ages of 36 to 42 months, the child's grammatical accuracy and sentence complexity increases. His or her vocabulary also increases but the rate of increase is not as great as between 30 and 36 months.

152

According to Piaget, children begin to intentionally lie (make false statements) at about ___ years of age

Piaget believed that young children lie spontaneously (unintentionally) and that children do not begin to intentionally lie until age 7 or 8.

153

Piaget created three stages of moral judgement. prior to age 6, children are in the pre-moral stage and exhibit?

At this stage, a child believes that rules are set by authority and are unchangeable. when judging a whether an act is right or wrong, they consider whether the rule was violated and what the negative consequences of are--the greater the consequence of the act, the worse the act.

According to Piaget, when making moral judgments about a behavior, children in the autonomous stage:

In regards to lying, children at a young age are considered_____ and see it as natural
By age 7 to 8 children begin to ?

Premoral stage: little concern for rules.

Heteronomous morality ( 7 to 10)

The autonomous stage begins by age 10 or 11. Children in this stage base their judgments of behavior primarily on the intentions of the actor. View rules as arbitrary and as being alterable when the people who are governed by them agree to change them.

young children- "spontaneous liars)
7 or 8- intentionally lie
10 or 11 recognize that they can be deceived by others.

154

Adults aged 70 and older usually report the largest number of memories for events that occurred in the 10-year period prior to being evaluated. For these individuals, the next largest number of memories is for events that occurred when they were between the ages

The research has shown that older adults typically recall recent and remote events better than intermediate events.
he term "reminiscence bump" is used to refer to the greater memory for events that occurred during adolescence and early adulthood. 10 to 30 yrs old

155

Research examining the effects of divorce suggests that maladjustment in children following the divorce of their parents is most likely the result of?

One of the more consistent findings of the research is that parental conflict is a major cause of maladjustment in children in both intact and divorced families.

Conflict (disharmony) has been found to be more critical than the separation. Children of divorced parents show less maladjustment when the conflict between their parents is minimal.

156

As described by __________, internalization involves an internal reconstruction of an external operation.

his is a difficult question, but you may have been able to identify the correct answer if you remembered that Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as being initially interpersonal (which refers to the child's interactions with others) and then intrapersonal (which occurs when the child internalizes what he or she has learned).
Internalization is a key concept in Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development. For example, he described language development as a process involving a transition from social (external) speech to private (self-directed) speech to internal speech. In other words, speech first serves a social function (social speech); is then used to direct, plan, and evaluate one's own actions (private speech); and then acts as a tool for thinking (internal speech).

157

Studies on information processing during the first two years of life indicate that infants first exhibit recognition memory for up to 24 hours following presentation of a stimulus at about ____ months of age.

Researchers often use habituation to assess information processing skills in infants. Studies using this technique have found that recognition memory skills are apparent at a very early age.

By three months of age, infants habituate to visual stimuli - i.e., show less response to the second presentation of a stimulus for periods up to 24 hours. This is interpreted as indicating that the infant recognizes the stimulus.

Note: By 7 months, infants begin to show signs of recall memory.

158

Diana Baumrind (1971) and her colleagues describe parenting styles in terms of two dimensions - demandingness and responsiveness. For example, the authoritative style is characterized by:

Researchers who classify parenting styles in terms demandingness and responsiveness distinguish between four styles, which represent different combinations of levels of these characteristics.

Answer A is correct: A combination of high demandingness and high responsiveness is characteristic of authoritative parents. Note, however, that the demands of authoritative parents are reasonable and involve setting and enforcing appropriate limits.

Note:
A combination of high demandingness and low responsiveness is characteristic of authoritarian parents.

A combination of low demandingness and high responsiveness is characteristic of permissive parents.

A combination of low demandingness and low responsiveness is characteristic of uninvolved parents.

159

A mother of a newborn is most likely to say that, based on the nature of her baby's cry, she can tell if her baby is:

Researchers have distinguished between three types of cries in infants. Mothers and other caretakers have confirmed that each cry is associated with a different meaning.

Even very young infants seem to be able to communicate that they are either hungry, angry or in pain by the nature of their cries.

160

During Piaget's heteronomous stage, children's moral judgments are based on:

Piaget proposed a sequence of moral development involving three stages: premoral, moral realism, and moral relativism.

Rules and the consequences of violating a rule are the basis of moral judgment during the stage of moral realism (which is also called the heteronomous stage).

161

Most children are not physically ready for toilet training until which age?

If you've had any experience with young children, you may have been able to answer this question. Note that it's asking about MOST children.

Answer C is correct: The experts seem to vary somewhat with regard to this issue, but most consider 20 to 24 months a good time to begin toilet training.

162

Research on the effects of age on second-language learning has shown that the ability to achieve native-like pronunciation of a second language is:

Research on the relationship between age and second-language learning is very inconsistent and has not led to a consensus of opinion; and, perhaps, the best conclusion is that the relationship is mediated by a number of factors.

Answer A is correct: While there is evidence that adolescents and adults initially make faster progress in acquiring a second language (especially with regard to syntax and morphology), individuals exposed to a second language during childhood are more likely to speak with a native accent. In other words, pronunciation is the one aspect of language learning for which there is fairly consistent evidence that "younger is better."

163

the stages of grief as described by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross (1969)?

Based on her research with terminally ill patients, Kubler-Ross (1969) identified five stages in coming to terms with one's own death.
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

164

Tom is not colorblind but he has a brother who is colorblind. Tom's wife, Alice, is not colorblind and does not have any relatives who are colorblind. Which of the following describes the likelihood that the children of Tom and Alice will be colorblind?

Since the gene for colorblindness is carried on the X chromosome, colorblindness would have to come from the mother for sons and from both the mother and father for daughters. However, since there's no history of colorblindness in the mother's family, this will not occur.
-Neither son or daughter

165

PKU (phenylketonuria) is an inherited disorder that can cause Intellectual Disability:

PKU (phenylketonuria) is an inherited disorder that can cause Intellectual Disability:
only in individuals who are homozygous for the condition.

PKU is an autosomal recessive condition, which means that an individual must have two recessive genes (i.e., be homozygous) to have the disorder.

166

Vygotsky viewed the "self-talk" of young children as:

Self-talk (talking aloud to oneself) is also referred to as private speech and is exhibited by children ages 4 through 9. Vygotsky considered children's self-talk to be an essential contributor to cognitive development.

Answer B is correct: Vygotsky believed that the self-talk of young children helps them integrate language with thought and thought with action. According to Vygotsky, children use self-talk to guide their actions, especially when working on difficult or confusing tasks.

167

As described by Piaget, using objects in novel ways and deliberately varying an action to provoke new results is characteristic of which sensorimotor substage?

Tertiary circular reactions involve exploring the properties of objects by acting on them in new ways -- e.g., twisting and turning a shaped object so that it fits through a hole.

Primary circular reactions are simple motor habits that involve the infant's body (e.g., thumbsucking).

Secondary circular reactions include simple repetitive actions that help the infant gain voluntary control over his/her behavior.

Coordinated secondary reactions include intentional, goal-directed behaviors that combine secondary circular reactions into new, more complex action sequences.

168

Research comparing outcomes for children who are actively rejected or neglected by their peers has found that:

the research has found that, overall, the outcomes for neglected children are better than those for rejected children. In addition, neglected children are more likely to experience a change in peer status when they change schools or social groups.

neglected children are better adjusted than rejected children and are more likely to experience a change in social status when they change social groups.

169

Kohlberg originally identified the six stages of moral development while conducting research for his doctoral dissertation. That research involved asking 72 white male children to respond to a dilemma involving:

Kohlberg originally described his stages of moral development in his doctoral dissertation.
Kohlberg's approach to studying moral development involves investigating how the individual responds to a moral dilemma. The first dilemma that he developed (and used in his dissertation) was the Heinz dilemma, which involved a poor man who needed a drug for his dying wife.
-preconvention: punishment and obedience -instrumental hedonism-avoid punishment and get rewards.
-convention: good boy/Good Girl -right action-liked of socially approved:
Law and order: doing your duty to be good
-post convention morality- Morality for contract. democratically accepted law-decisions based on what is good for all and justice (morality of individual principles of conscience)

170

Most children do not understand that death is irreversible and universal until about _____ years of age.

he age at which children understand that death is irreversible and universal varies, depending on certain factors. In general, however, most children achieve this understanding at about ten years of age.