Flashcards in Lifespan Deck (170)
Harlow and Harlow's (1969) research found what?
Harlow and Harlow's (1969) research would have helped you answer this question. In their studies, infant monkeys were reared in isolation or with one of two types (wire mesh or cloth) of surrogate mothers. Results indicated that tactile contact is the crucial element in the development of attachment: Infant monkeys consistently preferred cloth mothers to wire mothers even when food was given via the wire mother.
Researchers have used a number of techniques to investigate self-recognition in babies including mirrors, photos, and use of the words "I" and "me." At what age do babies self-recognize?
In a frequently cited study investigating the emergence of self-recognition, J. Brooks-Gunn and M. Lewis had mothers wipe the noses of their babies, ages 9 to 24 months, with a red dye, and then place the babies in front of a mirror. Results indicated that about 30% of the 18-month-old babies recognized themselves in the mirror (i.e., they rubbed the red spot on their own noses when they saw their reflection), while 60% of the 21-month-old babies did so (Social cognition and the acquisition of self, New York, Plenum, 1979).
studies on Step parents and remarriage found?
The studies have generally shown that younger children have less trouble adjusting to a stepparent than do older school-age children and adolescents. In addition, while research on the impact of the child's gender on adjustment to a stepparent is not entirely consistent, most studies have found that girls have more adjustment problems than boys do or, alternatively, that gender does not have a substantial impact on adjustment.
What are Rutter's mechanisms of resiliency?
The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks
associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: 1)
reduction of risk impact, 2) reduction of negative chain reactions, 3)
establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and 4) opening
up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.
Who experiences increased heart rate when an infant cries?
Most adults have an automatic physiological response to an infant's cries, with the pain cry producing the strongest response.
Vygotsky believed a young child's self talk was?
Vygotsky believed that the self-talk of young children helps them integrate language with thought and thought with action. According to Vygotsky, children use self-talk to guide their actions, especially when working on difficult or confusing tasks.
What is Gilligan's theory? and compared to male's females are more concerned with?
Females are more concerned with caring, compassion, and responsibility to others.
Gilligan created a stage model that emphasized these concerns.
Level 1 orientation of individual survival
Transition 1 --From selfishness to responsibility -- one is connected to others
Level 2: Goodness as self sacrifice (sacrifice of one's own desires for those of others)
Transition 2__ From Goodness to Truth (focus is on coordinating one's responsibilities to self and others)
Level 3- Morality of Nonviolence (no one should be hurt)
Kohlberg argued that there is a monotonic relationship between moral judgment and moral action and proposed that, as one moves from a lower to a higher stage of moral development:
The stronger relationship between judgment and action at higher stages is attributable to two factors: first, the range of actions suggested by the individual's judgment narrows; and, second, the individual experiences an increasing sense of responsibility to act.
Although Kohlberg believed that there is a positive relationship between moral judgment and moral action, he proposed that this relationship is much stronger at higher levels of moral development.
Which of the aspects of the central nervous system is least well-developed at birth?
The brain develops both before and after birth in an orderly sequence. At birth, the infant's brain is about one-fourth the size of an adult brain.
The cortex is not well-developed at birth, which suggests that newborn behaviors are primarily reflexive (i.e., mediated by the lower centers of the brain). Some areas of the cortex (e.g., those involved in problem-solving, self-concept, and planning) do not fully develop until adolescence or early adulthood.
Note: The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus and is sufficiently well-developed at birth to allow for critical functions that are necessary for life. Like the diencephalon, the midbrain is relatively well-developed at birth. The cerebellum is involved in motor coordination, and the motor areas of the brain develop prior to the areas governing the higher cognitive functions.
A patient whose corpus callosum has been severed as a treatment for severe epilepsy will be able to do which of the following?
identify a pen with her left hand after an image of a pen has been projected to her left visual field Why?
An image presented to the left visual field will be processed by the right hemisphere which controls the left hand. Therefore, the patient will be able to perform this task.
keep in mind that (1) language is controlled by the left hemisphere in most people and (2) most functions are controlled contralaterally but that olfaction is an exception to this general rule.
If an infant is unable to focus or coordinate one eye with the other and this problem is not corrected before age one, the child will always have problems with binocular vision. This best illustrates the concept of:
Note: A sensitive period is longer in duration and more flexible than a critical period. Language, for example, is believed to have a sensitive period: Once the optimal period for being exposed to language has passed, the individual may still be able to develop language skills (although it may be more difficult to do so).
Research investigating the relationship between age and crystallized and fluid intelligence has found that:
fluid intelligence begins to deline in the late twenties to early thirties, while crystallized intelligence continues to increase until age 60 or late.
The concepts of fluid intelligence (gf) and crystallized intelligence (gc) were introduced in 1963 by the psychologist Raymond Cattell. According to Cattell's psychometrically-based theory, general intelligence (g) is subdivided into gf and gc. Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve novel reasoning problems and is correlated with a number of important skills such as comprehension, problem solving, and learning. Crystallized intelligence, on the other hand, involves the ability to deduce secondary relational abstractions by applying previously learned primary relational abstractions.
Based on the research, the best conclusion that can be drawn about the impact of biological sex and gender-role identity on self-esteem is that:
gender role has a greater impact than biological sex, with androgyny being associated with the highest levels of self-esteem.
The study by Hall and Halberstadt and subsequent studies have generally confirmed that androgyny (which combines masculine and feminine characteristics and preferences) is associated with the highest levels of self-esteem in both boys and girls. Some studies have also found that masculinity, to a somewhat lesser degree, is associated with higher levels of self-esteem than femininity in both boys and girls
Children ordinarily first show signs that they have lost their ability to distinguish between speech sounds that are not common in their native language by _________ months of age.
Babies can initially distinguish between speech sounds that are and are not part of their own language. This ability is subsequently lost, however, around the same time they begin to understand meaningful speech - i.e., at about 9 to 11 months of age.
A study conducted by Buhrmester and Furman (1990) of 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th graders found that, as children approach the end of middle childhood, relationships between siblings become more?
Buhrmester and W. Furman found a combination of closeness and conflict among siblings in middle childhood with a trend toward less conflict and greater egalitarianism with increasing age (Perceptions of sibling relationships during middle childhood and adolescence,
Young siblings- prosocial, play oriented behaviors
middle-childhood- paradoxical combination; close/conflict, cooperation/competition
sibling rivalry increases with same gender siblings who are 1.5 to 3 years difference in age and inconsistent parenting. Adolescence less time together less emotionally intense and friction declines when they start to view each other as equals. Close as siblings closer as adults.
Research on early attachment has identified four basic attachment patterns - secure, insecure/ambivalent, insecure/avoidant, and disorganized/disoriented. Describe each
A baby with insecure/ambivalent attachment is very distressed when separated from his/her mother but is angry and resistant to contact when she returns.
A baby with insecure/avoidant attachment shows little distress when separated from his/her mother and ignores or avoids her when she returns.
A baby with a secure attachment is mildly upset when separated from his or her mother and then actively seeks contact with her when she returns.
Levinson's model identifies several stages and transitional periods.
The mid-life transition occurs between the ages of 40 and 45 and is characterized by a realization that the dream is not satisfying and/or will not be accomplished.
Following the dream (goal or vision for the future) is characteristic of the "entry life structure for early adulthood" stage, which occurs from ages 22 to 28.
Formulation of the dream is characteristic of the "early adult transition," which occurs from age 17 to 22.
Realization of the dream is characteristic of the "culmination of early adult life structure" stage, which occurs from ages 33 to 45.
zone of approximal development
scaffolding: instruction, assistance, and support and is most effective when it involves modeling, providing cues and encouraging the child to think about alternative plans of actions.
Symbolic play (make believe play) provides a child with a zone of proximal development and enables the child to practice behaviors in situations that required less precision and accuracy then would be required in reality.
Children often talk out loud when performing tasks which is self directed (private) speech different from Piaget's egocentrism. This helps the child to organize their own behaviors and self directed speech becomes internalized as we grow.
two or more X Chromosomes
Turner: Single X Chromosome
Down: extra chromosome 21
Maternal Conditions during pregnancy
When in the first trimester: heart defects, blindness, deafness, and ID. What is it?
Passed through the placenta: affects 1% of new born, and 10% of these new born have low birth weight, petechial rash, microencephaly, enlarged liver spleen, retinal inflammation, calcium deposits in the brain. ?
transmission can occur during pregnancy, child birth or breast feeding, 20 to 30% transmission during pregnancy, treatment during pregnancy can reduce risk to 1%. 20% who do not receive treatment exhibit symptoms during the first two years of life and 80% develop symptoms by age 3 to 4. Signs of infection include slow growth, and development, increase chance of bacterial infection, oral candidiasis. Later delays in physical and cognitive development, immunologic abnormalities. With treatment 50% live to 10 years, and some to adolescence.
When occurring in the 3 trimester and extreme can lead to poor brain development and reduced number of neurons, reduce myelination, neurotransmitter abnormalities. lack of folic acid- spina bifida
This can cause a risk form miscarriage, painful labor, and premature delivery
High risk for asphyxia during birth, respiratory disease, hypoglycemia, LD and ADHD
1- Rubella = Measles-Rash
2- Cytomegalovirus - Herpes
6- newborn's weighing below their 10th percentile for gestation age
Cognitive changes in Adulthood
Childhood amnesia: episodic memory- prior age 3 or 4
age negatively impacts explicit over implicit memory
greatest decline in recent long term ( secondary memory followed by working memory aspects of short term memory
But, remote long term memory, memory span and sensory member is not affected by age
Episodic is most adversely affected by age compared to semantic and procedural and metamemory is moderately affected
Parenting style: does child's temperament moderate parenting style and if so how?
Authoritative parenting is more predictive of internal conscience for children 6 years later for fearful and anxious toddlers that for those who are not anxious and not fearful,
Mutlidimensional Model (Egan and Perry)
views gender identity and consisting of 5 components. What are they?
What is the name of the component that suggests the extent to which one believes that one's gender category is superior or the other category?
Which is the degree to which one is satisfied with one's gender?
Which component is the degree to which one feels similarly to others in one's gender?
This model predicts that?
Membership knowledge, gender typicality, gender contentedness, felt pressure for gender conformity, intergroup bias
model predicts that a person's psychosocial adjustment is related to their status on these components.
Research on gender identity outcomes found that?
Androgyny is linked to?
Research found that gender identity had a greater impact than biological sex on self esteem and that for both females and males, androgyny (combination of femininity and masculinity) and to a lesser degree masculinity were associated with higher levels of self esteem than was femininity
Androgyny: is linked to greater flexibility when coping with difficult situations, higher levels of life satisfaction, greater comfort in one's sexuality.
Race and racial preference
Research by Clark and Clark indicate?
Katz showed that?
age 6 m notice a difference
4 years are able to label into racial groups
10 years children understand the social connotations of racial differences.
Research Black children preferred white doll= negative self image
Children preferred same race peers and this increased from ages 3 to 6 for whites but decreased for blacks
Bowlby's approach to attachment is and suggest?
Results of this are named?
Bowlby's attachment theory was influenced by a ethology and evolutionary theory that stressed the importance of a infant's exposure to the mother during the critical period of the infant's first year.
Infant's are born with a biological predisposition-- programed to cry, smile, and vocalize
Results: internal working model
What are the 3 signs of attachment and at what age?
Social Referencing: 6 m.
Separation anxiety: 6 to 8 months, peaks at 14 to 18m
Stranger Anxiety: 8 to 10 months continues to age 2
Families are most likely to use coercive parenting when?
the family experiences high levels of stress, parents have certain personality characteristics, child has a difficult temperament
What are Perry's social cognitive factors of aggression
Other research on social cognitive aspects of aggression indicate?
self efficacy beliefs: easier to perform aggressive acts then inhibit,
belief that aggression will be followed by positive consequences including reduced aversive behaviors by others
little regret little remorse
hostile attribution bias