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Memory in Adulthood

selective attention and inductive reasoning is affected by age. Blood flow drops the most in the frontal cortex, declines in verbal fluency, or the ability to find the words they want. They also have to work harder at "executive function," planning and organizing their activities. The areas most affected after that include the parietal cortex, which affects construction and visuomotor performance (practice that golf swing!), and the medial temporal area, which affects the ability to make new long-term memories and think flexibly.
Episodic (what did I have for breakfast?), source (where did I learn about that new car?), and flashbulb (where where you on Sept. 11, 2001?) memory decline the most. Semantic (words, facts and concepts) and procedural ("it's like riding a bicycle - you never forget") memory decline the least. implicit learning - learning without conscious effort - seems to more or less be spared into old age
age 50 recall teen to young adults- reminiscence bump: novel experience encoding
recall of recent events -20 years-retention
age affects; explicit memory , mostly recent long-term; secondary memory (aspects of LTM that contains newly acquired info, most negatively affected by age) then working memory (short term)
Retained: remote long term, memory span and sensory memory
episodic most severe decline - moderate decline metamemory, also affected, semantic and procedural


memory in Childhood

early recognition and recall
3 m recognition recall 6 to 12 m
increase memory strategies rehearsal
9 to 10 rehearsal organization and elaboration, adolescence metacognition
childhood infantile amnesia 5 years: the inability to recall events that occur prior to age 3 to 4-the inability of adolescents and adults to recall events they experience prior to 3 or 4 yrs.



The verbal way of expressing language:
Phonemes: the smallest unit of sound
Articulation is the movement of speech organs


Bilingual Speakers

Code Switching: shift between languages during the course of a conversation
-used to express solidarity with cultural group, better express one's attitudes or feelings.


List gross motor milestones
2 yr old
4 yr old

Gross motor milestones for two-year-old children include climbing up on furniture, walking alone, walking up and down stairs one at a time, and catching a large ball using hands and chest.
-3 yr years of age include pedaling a tricycle, kicking a stationary ball forward, throwing a ball overhand, going up stairs using alternate feet, and running without falling
-Gross motor milestones for four-year-old children include hopping on one foot, standing on one leg, running to kick a ball, bouncing a ball, and going down stairs using alternate feet.
- Gross motor milestones for five-year-old children include riding a scooter or bicycle, jumping rope, hopping on alternate feet, jumping over low obstacles, and catching a ball with both hands and arms bent.



Secure: flexibility of attention-explores or plays in parent's presences, changes attentional focus to parent on at least one separation and seek parent during at least one reunion. In pre-separation episodes explores room and toys with interest, with occasional returns to checks in with parents (secure base phenomenon) Shows signs of missing parent during separation, often crying by second separation. Greets parent actively, usually initiating physical contact. Usually some contact maintain by second reunions but then settles and returns to play
Avoidant little flexibility of attention: Focuses on toys or environment and away from parent, whether present or departing or returning, Explores toys, objects, and room throughout procedure. Fails to cry on separation. Actively avoids or ignores parent on reunion (turning away, leaning out of arms when picked up) little or no proximity or contact seeking, distress, or expression of anger. Response to parent appears unemotional.
resistant or ambivalent: little flexibility of attention: focuses on parent throughout or all procedure, with no focus on toys or environment May be wary or distress prior to separation, may seem angry or passive. Fails to settle or take comfort in reunion and cont. to focus on parent and cry. Signs of angry towards parent are mixed with efforts to make contact


Chomsky 2 structures of Language

Chomsky: 2 structures: deep structure of an idea; that is, how the idea is
represented in the fundamental universal grammar that is common to all languages, and the
surface structure of the idea or how it is expressed in any one language. Once we hear or
express a thought in surface structure, we generally forget exactly how it happened. At the end of
a lecture, you will remember a lot of the deep structure (i.e., the ideas expressed by the
instructor), but you cannot reproduce the surface structure (the exact words that the instructor
used to communicate the ideas)



timing of exposure- critical period
amount of exposure
# of teratogens
Gene makeup


What are some gender difference in communication style?

Women are more likely to ask questions during a conversation, and men tend to talk for longer periods of time, interrupt more frequently, and make more eye contact.


What is syntactic bootstrapping is useful for?

In the context of language acquisition, bootstrapping refers to mechanisms that children use to facilitate language acquisition.

Syntactic bootstrapping refers to a child's use of syntactical knowledge to learn the meaning of new words.


Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) occurs when? and results in what symptoms for the baby?

a type of herpes virus is passed from an infected pregnant woman to her fetus through the placenta.

-intellectual disabilities and hearing and visual impairments.


Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) self-fulfilling prophecy found that?

Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that grade school teachers' expectations about students had a self-fulfilling prophecy effect - i.e., when teachers were told that the test scores of some students indicated they would be "academic spurters" (even though the students had been randomly selected), those students had unusual gains in academic performance, apparently because they were treated differently by the teachers.


What memory strategies to children use?

Children use these strategies ineffectively until around age?

These are fine tuned in adolescence with the starts of?

age related memory changes: increase speed and capacity for working memory.

age 9

Metacognition and metamemory


Changes in episodic memory
- what is childhood amnesia and why does in occur

When adults 50 or older are asked to recall events what are they likely to remember?

What is retention function? and why does this occur?

What is reminiscence bump? and what the explanation for this?

Adults can not recall events prior to age three or four- brain essential for memory of events-prefrontal cortex is not fully developed. and absence of language that is necessary to encode information in ways that would enable later retrieval.

- they will recall a larger amount of recent events followed by events that occurred in the last 20 years.
retention function greater recall of events that occurred in the past 20 years.
-reminiscences _ greater recall of events that occurred when they were 10 to 30 years old (occurs: larger portion of novel experiences at this time, encoding information is most efficient, personal sense of self is developed at this time.)


In regard to sibling relationships when do siblings engage mostly in prosocial play oriented behaviors?
Describe sibling relationship in middle-childhood/ preadolescent siblings is best described as:?

When are they most distance and spend less time together?

young siblings

middle-childhood: paradoxical: closeness/conflict and cooperation/competition



Neurogenesis in adulthood occurs in what part of the brain?



Play is considered to be a significant contributor to child's physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. _____ play assist's the child muscle and motor development and teaches children how to express impulses and feelings in a socially acceptable way?
___ provides opportunities for the child to develop cognitive skills related to symbolism, imitation, and problem solving.

Parten named three types of non-social play and three types of social play. What are they?

What type of play involves interacting with other children and playing with the other child, but without organization or shared goals? what type is this?

Motor Play: rough and tumble

Dramatic (imaginative)play

3 nonsocial
-unoccupied play: random movements that do not seem to have a goal
-onlooker play: child watches and makes comments
-solitary play

3 social
- parallel play
- associative play
-cooperative play

--associative play; social


Damon describes three stages of peer and social relationship
what ages do children perceive relationships with peers as "play mates"
From ages ___ to ___ trust and assistance becomes important and friends are a source of help and support
When do intimacy and loyalty become important?
What is the buffering hypothesis?

Play mates: 4 to 7

8 to 10
11/preadolescence ;adolescence

Buffering: when subjective perception of social support is more critical then actual support-adulthood


In regard to peer status and rejected and neglected children:
a child who is hostile, hyperactive, impulsive and has difficulty regulating negative emotions is likely a?
On the other hand, this type of child likely has some degree of social anxiety, tends to be submissive, has negative expectations of others and is often the victims of bullies.
This child is likely to have fewer than average interactions with peers, rarely engages in disruptive behaviors, they desire to be alone and do not report being lonely or unhappy.
What is worse?

Rejected-aggressive child

Rejected-withdrawn child

neglected children

Rejected is the worst and this does not improve even when moving to different peer groups.


Higher levels of marital satisfaction have been linked to ?
There is a ___ shaped relationship between marital duration and marital satisfaction. where the greatest dissatisfaction occurs ____?

-similarity in age, SES education, and religion, marrying after 23, dating at least 6 mos, before marriage, and waiting one year to have children.

U: middle years of marriage.


Hetherington (1993) and others have found that children's adjustment to parental remarriage is affected by what factors.

(age: preadolescent) Hetherington concludes that individuals in early adolescence have the most difficulty adapting to the remarriage of a parent because the introduction of a stepparent at this time may exacerbate the normal adjustment problems associated with this age. Especially in regard to autonomy and sexuality
(gender: females) in preadolescence especially in families with a step father. but is beneficial for boys in this age group. Boys in this age group become even closer to their step fathers and there is no difference to nondivorced boys in behavioral and academic problems.


How do you decrease aggressive behaviors in preschoolers?

help the child recognize the consequences of his or her behavior and identify alternative behaviors. There is evidence that fostering empathy (e.g., by helping the child recognize the consequences of his/her behavior for the target of the aggression) and helping the child identify alternative behaviors is useful, especially for younger children.


How do researcher study social referencing?

Visual Cliff: Of the techniques listed in the answers, the visual cliff is the only one that has been used to study social referencing. Research using this technique has found that a baby's willingness to cross the visual cliff depends on his/her mother's facial expression.


Two-word sentences are characteristic of the speech of children at ________ months of age

18 to 24 months
Two-word sentences are referred to as telegraphic speech, which is characteristic of children between the ages of 18 and 24 months and consists of the most important words (e.g., "my doll" and "give cake").


Marcia distinguishes between four identity statuses that reflect the degree to which the individual has experienced an identity crisis and is committed to an identity.

"I'm going to work at the Bakery with my father."

"I'm going to go to school for language arts but I don't really know what I want to be. Maybe industrial design."

What is it called when the adolescent achieves an identity?
when they do not experience an identity crisis.

Marcia distinguishes between four identity statuses that reflect the degree to which the individual has experienced an identity crisis and is committed to an identity.

Identity foreclosure occurs when the individual has not experienced an identity crisis but has chosen an identity (e.g., career) that has been imposed by others.

Identity moratorium occurs when the individual is experiencing an identity crisis and is actively exploring alternative identities.

Identity diffusion occurs when the individual has not yet experienced an identity crisis and is not committed to a particular identity.

Identity achievement occurs when the individual has resolved the identity crisis and is committed to an identity.


______________ memory is most affected by increasing age, followed by working memory. The other aspects of memory listed in the answers are relatively unaffected by increasing age. Which are?

Recent long-term (secondary) memory

sensory memory
memory span
remote long-term memory


A baby's toes fan out and upward when the soles of her feet are tickled.

A baby turns his head in the direction of a light touch on his cheek or lip.

A baby flings his arms and legs outward and then toward his body in response to a loud noise.

A baby makes walking movements when held upright while her feet touch a flat surface.

-stepping reflex


According to Piaget, much of the cognitive development that occurs during the sensorimotor stage is the result of circular reactions, in which the child learns to reproduce a pleasurable or interesting experience that originally occurred by chance. Piaget distinguished between three types of circular reactions - primary, secondary, and tertiary.

At what stage, does an infant learn that grabbing a rattle with his or her hand and shaking it produces an interesting noise? and what age?

Which one involves simple motor habits that center around the baby's own body (e.g., thumb sucking).

Which stage involves varying an original action on an external object to see what happens.

Secondary circular reactions predominate from ages 4 to 8 months and are actions involving other people or objects. For example, at this stage, an infant may learn that grabbing a rattle with his or her hand and shaking it produces an interesting noise.

Piaget considered reflexes to be the "building blocks" of cognitive development from birth to 1 month.

Primary circular reactions predominate from ages 1 to 4 months. They involve simple motor habits that center around the baby's own body (e.g., thumb sucking).

Tertiary circular reactions predominate from ages 12 to 18 months and involve varying an original action on an external object to see what happens. occurs when a baby's action gets a pleasurable or interesting response from an object or other person, which then leads the baby to repeat the action.


Authoritative parenting is modified by what?

This is some evidence that the benefits of authoritative parenting are modified by family ethnicity or culture. For example, L. Sternberg et al. report that the authoritative style is beneficial for the school success of white and Hispanic students but that, for Asian- and African-Americans, this style does not predict school achievement


Structural (physical) abnormalities are most likely to occur when a pregnant woman consumes alcohol during the _____ trimester. Alcohol consumption in the ______ and ______ trimesters is associated more with behavioral and psychological deficits.

Structural (physical) abnormalities are most likely to occur when a pregnant woman consumes alcohol during the first trimester. Alcohol consumption in the second and third trimesters is associated more with behavioral and psychological deficits.