Flashcards in Liberalism - Key thinker examples Deck (6)
Key thinker examples of liberal views on society
John Locke - Belief in natural society with natural laws and rights and social contract.
John Stuart Mill - Belief in the individualistic society
John Stuart Mill - Believed most human activity should be tolerated, unless it infringes on his harm principle
Mary Wollstonecraft - Belief in foundational equality, thinks women should have the same opportunities as men
John Locke's view on the state
- A state that is thus 'contractual' and based on government by consent. Also the idea of a 'nightwatchman' state - a state only there to keep individuals safe.
Classical and modern liberalism views on the state
All Liberals are suspicious of the state, but believe its a necessity to achieve maximum liberty.
Classical liberalism - Individual freedom would best be achieved with the state playing a minimal role and a reliance on market economics (John Locke, natural society with natural laws and rights)
Modern liberalism - Reaction to free market capitalism, qualified support for social and economic intervention to aid personal development (John Rawls believed in a interventionist state) (enabling state)
Other key thinker views
- John Locke believed that the government should only represent the will of people who own private property.
- John Stuart Mill disagreed with this 'tyranny of the majority' and said it oppresses the individualism of the minority.
Classic liberalism believes in negative freedom and a laissez faire economy, modern liberalism believes in positive freedom and a keynesian economic management system.
Classical and modern liberal views on the economy
- All strands of liberalism believe the aim of 'economic liberalism' is to advance individual freedom.
Classical liberalism - Believe in a laissez faire capitalism system as it maximises individual liberty. There is also a respect for private property ('a natural right', John Locke, JSM was a big supporter of this system too)
Modern Liberalism - Moving away from laissez faire capitalism, modern liberals believe capitalism requires state management to ensure full employment. (T.H Green tried to reconcile a capitalist market society with liberalism)