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Flashcards in Liberalism Deck (11)
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What are the core principles of liberalism?

- Individualism, the idea that are all individuals are unique and have equal worth.

- Liberty, where individuals are are free to do what they want under the law.

- Limited government, where the role of the government is limited by checks and balances, and a separation of powers, because of the corrupting nature of power.

- Rationalism, where individuals should be free to exercise their judgement about their own interests without needing to be guided by external authorities.

- Equality, the idea that each individual should have the same chance to rise or fall in society.

- Social justice, is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities and privileges within a society.


What are John Locke's ideas?

- Society, state and government are based on a voluntary agreement or contract.

- Government should be limited and based on consent from below.


What are Mary Wollstonecraft's ideas?

- Women are rational, independent beings capable of reason.

- In order to be free, women should enjoy full civil liberties and the opportunity to pursue a career.


What are John Stuart Mill's ideas?

- Individuals should be free to do anything except harm other individuals.

- It is important to tolerate behaviour or ideas that are different from one's own.


What are John Rawls's ideas?

- Society must be just and guarantee each citizen a life worth living.

- A fair society is one in which the difference in outcomes for the richest and the poorest is kept to a minimum.


What are Betty Friedan's ideas?

- Women are as capable as men and oppressive laws and social views must be rejected.

- Women are held back from fulfilling their potential by unfair ideas about the kind of employment they can take up.


Name some similarities between modern and classic Liberalism

- Both are somewhat in favour of capitalism

- Both advocate for the protection of civil liberties

- Both are in favour of a decentralisation of government


What is negative freedom?

- When individuals are left alone by the state to pursue their own destiny

- A key feature of classical liberalism

- Any attempt to interfere with individual actions may therefore be judged an infringement of liberty


What is positive freedom?

- Individuals should be able to control their own destiny to to develop personal talents and achieve self-fulfilment

- However, some limited state intervention is needed to make this possible

- Modern liberalism idea


What is an enabling state?

- A state that enables people to fulfil their potential. The idea is to liberate individuals from restrictive social and economic problems.


Developmental and Egotistical individualism

- Egotistical individualism is a classical liberal idea. This is where individuals are self interested and self reliant, they know what is best for them so a minimal state is needed.

- Developmental individualism is a modern liberalism idea. This is where individuals should develop and prosper with each other.