Flashcards in Liberalism Deck (11)
What are the core principles of liberalism?
- Individualism, the idea that are all individuals are unique and have equal worth.
- Liberty, where individuals are are free to do what they want under the law.
- Limited government, where the role of the government is limited by checks and balances, and a separation of powers, because of the corrupting nature of power.
- Rationalism, where individuals should be free to exercise their judgement about their own interests without needing to be guided by external authorities.
- Equality, the idea that each individual should have the same chance to rise or fall in society.
- Social justice, is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities and privileges within a society.
What are John Locke's ideas?
- Society, state and government are based on a voluntary agreement or contract.
- Government should be limited and based on consent from below.
What are Mary Wollstonecraft's ideas?
- Women are rational, independent beings capable of reason.
- In order to be free, women should enjoy full civil liberties and the opportunity to pursue a career.
What are John Stuart Mill's ideas?
- Individuals should be free to do anything except harm other individuals.
- It is important to tolerate behaviour or ideas that are different from one's own.
What are John Rawls's ideas?
- Society must be just and guarantee each citizen a life worth living.
- A fair society is one in which the difference in outcomes for the richest and the poorest is kept to a minimum.
What are Betty Friedan's ideas?
- Women are as capable as men and oppressive laws and social views must be rejected.
- Women are held back from fulfilling their potential by unfair ideas about the kind of employment they can take up.
Name some similarities between modern and classic Liberalism
- Both are somewhat in favour of capitalism
- Both advocate for the protection of civil liberties
- Both are in favour of a decentralisation of government
What is negative freedom?
- When individuals are left alone by the state to pursue their own destiny
- A key feature of classical liberalism
- Any attempt to interfere with individual actions may therefore be judged an infringement of liberty
What is positive freedom?
- Individuals should be able to control their own destiny to to develop personal talents and achieve self-fulfilment
- However, some limited state intervention is needed to make this possible
- Modern liberalism idea
What is an enabling state?
- A state that enables people to fulfil their potential. The idea is to liberate individuals from restrictive social and economic problems.