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Flashcards in Lesson 3B (Part 3) Deck (30)
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1

What are the steps to a physical examination? (2)

1. Visual Inspection
2. Palpation

2

What do you do in a visual inspection?

Looks for signs of pathology

3

What kind of pathology are you looking for in a visual inspection? (5)

1. Breast asymmetry
2. Skin retraction or bulging
3. Nipple inversion
4. Signs of inflammation
5. Bruising
- scars

4

Palpation

Compressing the breast tissue lightly against the chest wall with enough pressure to identify different tissue textures

5

Echo palpation

Immobilization of a breast mass with two fingers while pressure is applied to the underlying tissues with the ultrasound transducer

6

What do benign lesions usually do?

Rotate with compression
- malignant lesions usually do not

7

What 2 views do you screen in for mammograms?

1. Craniocaudal
2. Mediolateral oblique

8

CC

Craniocaudal

9

MLO

Mediolateral oblique

10

What does MLO show? (3)

1. Chest wall
2. Axillary tail
3. Inframammary fold

11

Where does the CC view go from?

From the nipple to marker laterally

12

Where is the left/right marker always?

In the axilla

13

Where is the MLO view?

Above nipple is superior, below is inferior
- not a true lateral view

14

Where do medial lesions appear on MLO view?

Higher

15

Where do lateral lesions appear on MLO view?

Lower

16

Radiopaque

X-rays do not penetrate as well so the object is to get it whiter than surrounding tissue

17

Radiolucent

X-rays penetrate well so the object is to get darker than surrounding tissue, or black

18

What is the common cause of radiolucent?

Fat

19

What do mammographic compressions do?

Pulls the long axis of a mass perpendicular to chest wall

20

What do US compressions do?

Pushes long axis of a mass parallel to chest wall

21

What does difference in compressions mean?

A mass will appear closer to chest wall on US

22

What must you keep in mind when seeing a mass on a mammogram?

It must be rotated 90 degrees because mammogram is done upright while an US is done in supine

23

What is any mass seen on a mammogram that cannot be seen on an US must be considered?

Solid
- recheck for capsule around the mass

24

What do focal masses on US look like?

Hypoechoic

25

What do focal masses on a mammogram look like?

Dense

26

When correlating breast ultrasound with mammography, what should you do?

Compare the CC view of the mammogram with the transverse view on ultrasound

27

What will make it easier to reproduce sonographically if the scan plane is identical to the projection plane of the mammogram?

The shape of a mammographic lesion

28

Ductography

X-ray examination of the breast ducts

29

What is another term for ductgraphy? (2)

1. Galactography
2. Galactogram

30

What is ductography and mammography used to do? (3)

1. Look at the breast ducts
2. Find the cause of nipple discharge
3. Help diagnose intraductal papillomas and other breast conditions