Flashcards in Lesson 3B (Part 3) Deck (30)
What are the steps to a physical examination? (2)
1. Visual Inspection
What do you do in a visual inspection?
Looks for signs of pathology
What kind of pathology are you looking for in a visual inspection? (5)
1. Breast asymmetry
2. Skin retraction or bulging
3. Nipple inversion
4. Signs of inflammation
Compressing the breast tissue lightly against the chest wall with enough pressure to identify different tissue textures
Immobilization of a breast mass with two fingers while pressure is applied to the underlying tissues with the ultrasound transducer
What do benign lesions usually do?
Rotate with compression
- malignant lesions usually do not
What 2 views do you screen in for mammograms?
2. Mediolateral oblique
What does MLO show? (3)
1. Chest wall
2. Axillary tail
3. Inframammary fold
Where does the CC view go from?
From the nipple to marker laterally
Where is the left/right marker always?
In the axilla
Where is the MLO view?
Above nipple is superior, below is inferior
- not a true lateral view
Where do medial lesions appear on MLO view?
Where do lateral lesions appear on MLO view?
X-rays do not penetrate as well so the object is to get it whiter than surrounding tissue
X-rays penetrate well so the object is to get darker than surrounding tissue, or black
What is the common cause of radiolucent?
What do mammographic compressions do?
Pulls the long axis of a mass perpendicular to chest wall
What do US compressions do?
Pushes long axis of a mass parallel to chest wall
What does difference in compressions mean?
A mass will appear closer to chest wall on US
What must you keep in mind when seeing a mass on a mammogram?
It must be rotated 90 degrees because mammogram is done upright while an US is done in supine
What is any mass seen on a mammogram that cannot be seen on an US must be considered?
- recheck for capsule around the mass
What do focal masses on US look like?
What do focal masses on a mammogram look like?
When correlating breast ultrasound with mammography, what should you do?
Compare the CC view of the mammogram with the transverse view on ultrasound
What will make it easier to reproduce sonographically if the scan plane is identical to the projection plane of the mammogram?
The shape of a mammographic lesion
X-ray examination of the breast ducts
What is another term for ductgraphy? (2)