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Flashcards in Lesson 3B (Part 2) Deck (29)
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1

What are chronic postsurgical US findings that are related to scar formation? (3)

1. Retraction
2. Dystrophic calcifications
3. Fat necrosis
- lipophagic granuloma, oil cyst

2

What happens if you move a patient with an oil cyst?

It will also move

3

What can scar formation mimic?

Cancer

4

How can fat necrosis and dystrophic calcifications appear on the sonogram?

Hypoechoic or hyperechoic irregular mass with acoustic shadowing

5

What is needed for suspicious lesions? (3)

1. Serial ultrasounds
2. Mammograms
3. Biopsy

6

What are male breasts mainly composed of?

Fat

7

What do male breast not have that females do? (2)

1. Lobules
2. Coopers ligaments

8

How do male breasts appear on US? (4)

1. Small nipple
2. Little subcutaneous fat
3. Lack of subareolar glandular development
4. Prominent pectoralis major muscle

9

Gynecomastia

Is the abnormal enlargement of rudimentary male breast tissue

10

What can gynecomastia be related to?

Steroid abuse or associated with hormonal treatments
- eg) prostate cancer therapies

11

How can gynecomastia present itself?

As a retroareolar lump with or without pain

12

How can gynecomastia present itself on US?

Hypoechoic with spiculations radiating away from the nipple

13

Where does gynecomastia originate?

From the stromal or ductal elements of the breast

14

How common is male breast cancer?

Very rare
- < 1%

15

What is the most common cancer for male breasts?

Infiltrating or invasive ductal cancer

16

How does male breast cancer show on US? (3)

1. Microcalcifications uncommon
2. Appear spiculated
3. Ill defined

17

How many different shades of gray do you need in order to be delineate fine differences in tissue architecture?

256

18

How is fat representing on breast images?

Medium gray

19

What is the mean velocities for highly suspicious malignant breast masses?

25-40 cm/s

20

What is the mean velocities for benign lesion breast masses?

< 20 cm/s

21

What are breast US artifacts? (4)

1. Bayonet sign
2. Mirror image
3. Refractive Edge Shadowing
4. Partial Volume Effect or Volume Averaging

22

Bayonet sign

Aspiration needle appears to be broken
- difference in speed of sound between breast and fluid in cyst

23

Mirror image

Duplication of a complex lesion on both sides of a strong specular acoustic interface

24

What is the speed of sound in the human body?

1540 m/sec

25

What is the speed of sound in the breast?

1450 m/sec

26

What is the speed of sound in silicone breast implants?

1000 m/sec

27

What does differences in speed cause in the breast?

Artifacts

28

Refractive Edge Shadowing

Shadows extend from the edges of a cystic breast mass due to refraction

29

Partial Volume Effect or Volume Averaging

Fill in of cystic structures because echoes are detected outside of central beam axis