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Flashcards in Lesson 3A (Part 4) Deck (30)
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1

SCF

Subcutaneous fat

2

CL

Coopers ligament

3

FGT

Fibrglandular tissue

4

RMF

Retro mammary fat

5

PM

Pectoralis muscle

6

What does normal lactating breast tissue have?

Prominent fluid filled ducts and their echogenic epithelial lining is readily visible

7

What is the key area to scan because you typically find cancer here?

Tail of spence

8

What quadrant is the most common pace for cancer in the breast?

Upper outer quadrant
- 50%

9

What kind of frequency transducer do you use for breast?

8-15 MHz
- wide footprint probe

10

When do you use lower frequency transducer? (3)

1. Larger attenuative breasts
2. Inflammatory masses
3. Axilla

11

What kind of technique can you use for scanning the nipple, superficial/or skin lesions?

Stand off

12

What kind of doppler is used for assessing vascularity of lesions? (2)

1. Low PRF
2. Spectral doppler

13

How should mammary fat appear sonographically?

Medium gray
- from the overlying fascia to the retromammary space

14

What should patient history include for scanning the breast? (12)

1. Family history
2. Age
3. Previous mammograms
4. Parity
5. Masses
6. Gravida
7. Scars
8. Aborta
9. Skin changes
10. Medications
- hormones
11. Nipple discharge
12. Surgeries of the breast

15

What position do you scan your patient when doing an exam for the breast? (2)

1. Supine
2. Ipsilateral arm over the patients head

16

When do you increase the transducer pressure when scanning the breast? (2)

1. Greater penetration
2. Scanning the subareolar region

17

What are 4 techniques when scanning the breast?

1. Maximize tissue thinness
2. Reduce reflective and refractive attenuation
3. Maintain ultrasound transducer parallel to breast surface
4. Maintain ultrasound beam perpendicular to breast tissue

18

What can a shadow be caused by the breast?

The erection of the nipple

19

How can you decrease the shadow caused by the nipple? (3)

1. Apply more pressure
2. Use more gel
3. Scan the nipple area obliquely

20

What is the benefit for scanning the nipple region obliquely? (3)

1. Reduces the shadowing
2. Avoids the need for a standoff pad
3. Provides adequate visualization of the anatomy posterior to the nipple

21

Palpable nodule

Is a pea or bee-bee sized, then it is very small and near the skin

22

Whats the best way to visualize a palpable nodule?

Use a 1 cm standoff pad or a large "glop" of gel in order to move the elevation plane focus closer to the skin

23

What is the most common scanning technique for the breast?

Initially scan using the grid scanning pattern, followed by a radial (clock face) technique for the hard copy imaging

24

How do you scan the breast in a grid pattern? (4)

1. Begin in the upper outer quadrant, scanning in transverse
- slide inferiorly from top to bottom
2. Move across and repeat the sweep inferior to superior
3. Repeat this across the breast
4. Rotate into a sagittal plane and repeat the pattern

25

What is the number one modality for examining the breast?

Mammogram
- US helps confirm it

26

When do you use US instead of mammography? (4)

1. Below age 40
2. Pregnant or lactating
3. Someone who is young
4. Males

27

How does cartilage appear on US?

More hypoechoic

28

How does bone appear on US?

More echoic

29

What kind of vascularity should there be in a lactating breast?

None

30

How is the breast scan described as?

A clock face
- begin at 12 o'clock in a sagittal plane with the toe of the probe at the nipple