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Flashcards in Lesson 3A (Part 2) Deck (35)
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1

What are 2 types of ovarian hormones?

1. Estrogens
2. Progesterone

2

What do ovarian hormones control?

Breast development during puberty

3

What does estrogen do?

Stimulates growth of the ducts of the mammary glands

4

What does progesterone do?

Stimulates development of the actual secreting cells
- alveoli

5

How is breast size determined?

More by the amount of fat around the glandular tissue than by the amount of glandular tissue itself

6

What is breast size not related to?

Its ability to produce milk

7

What cuts off a major source of estrogen in the breasts?

Shedding of the placenta after delivery of the baby

8

What does the rapid drop in the blood concentration of estrogens do?

Stimulates the anterior pituitary secretion of prolactin

9

What stimulates the anterior pituitary secretion of prolactin and the posterior pituitary secretion of oxytocin?

Suckling movements of a nursing baby

10

What does prolactin simulate?

Lactation
- stimulates alveoli of the mammary glands to secrete milk

11

When does milk secretion start?

About the third or fourth day after delivery of a baby

12

Colostrum

The first secretion of the mammary glands after giving birth
- this yellowish secretion

13

What is colostrum rich with?

Antibodies

14

What does oxytocin stimulate?

Myoepithelial cells in the alveoli of the breasts

15

What does oxytocin do?

Stimulates the myoepithelial cells in the alveoli of the breasts to eject milk into the ducts

16

What is the arterial blood supply for the breast? (2)

1. Thoracic branches of the axillary arteries
2. Internal mammary and intercostal arteries

17

What is the venous drainage of the breast? (3)

1. Anastomotic circle round the base of the nipple
2. Branches carries the venous blood to the circumference
3. End in the axillary and mammary veins

18

What is the lymph drainage of the breast? (3)

1. Superficial axillary lymph vessels and nodes
2. Lymph may drain through the internal mammary
3. Nodes if the superficial route is obstructed

19

Anastomotic circle

Cycle around the area of the nipples and it carries out branches

20

What is a common way malignant breast tumours spread?

Through the lymphatics

21

What branches of the thoracic nerves contain sympathetic fibres? (3)

1. 4th
2. 5th
3. 6th

22

What is numerous in the breast, especially around the nipple?

Somatic sensory nerve endings

23

What are somatic sensory nerve endings stimulated by? (3)

1. Sucking
2. Impulses pass to the hypothalamus
3. The flow of the hormone oxytocin is increased
- promoting the release of milk

24

What is a normal process that occurs in women as they age from about 25 to 45 years old?

Involutional breast change

25

What happens to the number of lubules with involutional breast change?

They decrease
- specialized connective tissue in the breast will replaced with more fibrotic collagen

26

What is the result of decrease numbers of lubules in the breast?

Breast sagging

27

What are 2 reasons why breasts sag?

1. Decrease in number of lubules
2. Increase in fat deposition
- due to compensatory weight as one gets older

28

Polythelia

Accessory nipple

29

Polymastia

Complete accessory breast
- usually in axilla

30

Amastia

Complete failure of breast tissue to develop