Flashcards in Lesson 1E (Part 3) Deck (40)
Encapsulated true neoplasms of the thyroid gland
- 5-10% of all thyroid nodules
What is differentiation of follicular adenoma from a follicular carcinoma based on?
The presence of capsular or vascular invasion on histologic examination
- cannot be made by sonography or by FNA cytology
What does follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas look like sonographically? (2)
1. Solitary encapsulated tumors
2. Well-defined peripheral hypoechoic halo representing the fibrous capsule
What kind of follicular neoplasms are considered minimally invasive?
The types that are encapsulated
What kind of follicular neoplasms are considered invasive?
Extends beyond the tumour capsule into blood vessels and adjacent parenchyma
What is the echogenicity of follicular neoplasms?
How do echogenic adenomas appear?
1. Smoothly marginated
2. Ovoid in appearance
Medullary thyroid cancer
Neuroendocrine tumor arising from the parafollicular C cells located in the upper two thirds of the thyroid gland
What is the sonographic appearance of medullary carcinoma? (3)
3. Coarse central calcifications
Is a rare (<1%) thyroid mass that is extremely aggressive
Who does anaplastic carcinoma affect?
The elderly with a history of goiter
How does anaplastic carcinoma present?
A rapidly growing neck mass
- tumor invades locally
How do anaplastic carcinomas appear sonographically? (6)
- at least 5 to 10 cm
- not going to move/slide
- not compressible
5. Internal calcifications and cystic or necrotic areas
6. Adjacent enlarged lymph nodes
What are most thyroid lymphomas?
How does lymphomas present itself?
With a rapidly enlarging painless neck mass
What is the sonographic appearance of lymphoma? (2)
1. Very hypoechoic
2. Pseudocystic pattern
- increased through transmission
What is the sonographic appearance of metastatic disease? (5)
1. Nonspecific appearance
2. Usually solid
4. Hypoechoic nodules
5. Can be hypervascular
Excess secretion of parathyroid hormone
- usually by benign tumours of a gland
What does hyperparathyroidism cause?
The release of calcium from bones which raised the blood calcium levels
What are 5 effects of hyperparathyroidism?
1. Polyuria and polydipsia
2. Formation of renal calculi
3. Anorexia and constipation
4. Muscle weakness
5. General fatigue
What are the 2 types of hyperparathyroidism?
An enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes overproduction of the hormone, resulting in high levels of calcium in the blood
What is primary hyperparathyroidism caused by?
A single adenoma
- 85% of cases
Is involved with the organ or system itself that is causing problems
Occurs as a result of another disease that initially causes low levels of calcium in the body and over time, increased parathyroid hormone levels occur
Is involved with something outside the organ or system itself that is causing problems
Is a state of excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism and resulting in hypercalcemia
When does tertiary hyperparathyroidism persist?
After successful renal transplantation
What are causes of hyperthyroidism? (6)
1. Medical conditions that cause low blood calcium levels or increased phosphate levels
2. Conditions that make it hard for the body to remove phosphate
3. Kidney failure
4. Not enough calcium in the diet
5. Vitamin D disorders
6. Problems absorbing nutrients from food