Lesson 1E (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

High Resolution > Lesson 1E (Part 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lesson 1E (Part 2) Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Toxic nodular goitre

One or two nodules of a gland that is already affected by goitre become active and secrete excess T3 and T4

2

What does toxic nodular goitre cause?

Effects of hyperthyroidism

3

Who is toxic nodular goitre more common in?

Women
- after middle age (older than graves disease)

4

What is more common in the older age group than toxic nodular goitre? (2)

1. Arrhythmias
2. Cardiac failure

5

What is another name for autoimmune thyroiditis?

Hashimotos disease

6

What is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism?

Hashimotos disease

7

Who is hashimotos disease more common in?

Women

8

Autoimmune thyroiditis

Organ-specific autoimmune condition
- goiter sometimes present

9

What are the characteristic sonographic patterns of hashimotos thyroiditis? (4)

1. Diffusely coarse echotexture
2. Innumerable tiny hypoechoic nodules that may become confluent
3. Interspersed with echogenic fibrous bands
4. Vascularity
- increase, decreased or normal

10

Confluent

Run together

11

What are 2 other names for an adenoma?

1. Colloid
2. Adenomatous nodule

12

Adenoma

Hyperplastic nodule

13

What is the most common lesion in the thyroid?

Adenoma

14

What is the sonographic appearance of an adenoma?

1. Isoechoic
- but can also be hypoechoic
2. Commonly undergo cystic and hemorrhagic degeneration
3. Larger solid masses may be entirely echogenic
4. Degeneration of hyperplastic nodules
- dystrophic calcification = either coarse internal calcification or peripheral ‘‘eggshell’’ calcification

15

Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland without signs of hyperthyroidism

16

What is goiter caused by?

A relative lack of T3 and T4

17

What do low levels of T3 and T4 stimulate?

Secretion of TSH resulting

18

What does stimulating of TSH result in?

Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland

19

Hyperplasia

The enlargement of an organ or tissue caused my an increase in the reproduction rate of its cell

20

What develops when you have hyperplasia of the thyroid gland?

Hypothyroidism

21

What are causes of goiter? (3)

1. Persistent iodine deficiency
- dietary iodine deficiency (endemic goitre)
2. Genetic abnormality affecting synthesis of T3 and T4
3. Iatrogenic
- e.g. antithyroid drugs, surgical removal of excess thyroid tissue

22

What can enlarged glands cause from goiter?

Pressure damage to adjacent tissues

23

What structures are most commonly effected from goiter? (3)

1. Oesophagus
- dysphagia (hard to swallow)
2. Trachea
- dyspnoea (hard to breath)
3. Recurrent laryngeal nerve
- hoarseness of voice

24

What kind of nodules do you get from goiter?

Multinodular
- very common
- multiple hyperplastic nodules with varying degrees of colloid, necrosis, or hemorrhage
- multiple masses of varying size and echo texture***

25

What kind of echotexture does goiter have?

Heterogeneous

26

How common are malignant tumours of the thyroid gland?

They are rare

27

What is the only well established risk factor for differentiated thyroid cancer ?

External head and neck radiation
- especially during infancy

28

What is the most common thyroid malignant tumour?

Papillary cancer
- 75-80% of thyroid cancers

29

What are sonographic findings of papillary cancer? (4)

1. Punctuate, non-shadowing echogenic foci
- microcalcifications
2. Solid **
3. Hypoechoic **
4. Intrinsic vascularity **