Flashcards in Lesson 1E (Part 1) Deck (33)
What are the types of thyroid gland diseases? (5)
- adenoma (benign)
What are abnormal thyroid functions caused by? (3)
1. Thyroid disease
2. Disorders of the pituitary or hypothalamus
3. Insufficient dietary iodine
What are the main effects of abnormal thyroid function caused by?
An abnormally high or low basal metabolic rate
What is another name for hyperthyroidism?
What is hyperthyroidism?
Excessive levels of T3 and T4
What are the main effects of hyperthyroidism due to?
Increased basal metabolic rate
What is a common consequence of an aging heart?
How does cardiac failure affect the heart?
The heart has to work harder to deliver more blood and nutrients to the hyperactive body cells
What does hyperthyroidism cause? (3)
1. Graves' disease
2. Toxic nodular goiter
- a benign tumour
When does hypothyroidism occur?
When there is insufficient T3 and T4 secretion
What does hypothyroidism cause? (2)
1. Congenital hypothyroidism in children
2. Myxoedema in adults
What is an another term for congenital hypothyrodism?
Profound deficiency or absence of thyroid hormones that becomes evident a few weeks or months after birth
Where is hypothyroidism and endemic?
In the parts of the world where the diet is severely deficient in iodine and contains insufficient for synthesis of T3 and T4
What does the absence of thyroid hormones result in?
Profound impairment of growth and mental development
- unless treatment begins early
Why kind of impairments is there in cretinism? (5)
1. Has disproportionately short limbs
2. A large protruding tongue
3. Coarse dry skin
4. Poor abdominal muscle tone
- rounded belly
5. Umbilical hernia.
What is myxoedema more common in? (2)
1. The elderly
- 5x more than men
What does deficiency of T3 and T4 in adults result in?
An abnormally low metabolic rate
What are the found causes for my myxoedema? (3)
1. Autoimmune thyroiditis
2. Severe iodine deficiency
3. Healthcare interventions
- e.g. antithyroid drugs, surgical removal of thyroid tissue or ionizing radiation
What percent of graves disease are hyperthyroiditis?
Who does graves disease affect the most?
- between ages 30-50
What kind of disorder is graves disease?
Antibody that mimics the effects of TSH is produced
Visible enlargement of the gland
What stimulates thyroid growth?
What is a sign of Graves' disease?
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs
What kind of vascularity does greaves disease have?
What causes exophthalmos?
Due to the deposition of excess fat and fibrous tissue behind the eyes